Week 2

Focused SOAP Note Template

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Patient Information:

Initials, Age, Sex, Race


CC (chief complaint): a BRIEF statement identifying why the patient is here, stated in the patient’s own words (for instance “headache,” NOT “bad headache for 3 days”).

HPI (history of present illness): This is the symptom analysis section of your note. Thorough documentation in this section is essential for patient care, coding, and billing analysis. Paint a picture of what is wrong with the patient. Use LOCATES Mnemonic to complete your HPI. You need to start EVERY HPI with age, race, and gender (e.g., 34-year-old AA male). You must include the seven attributes of each principal symptom in paragraph form not a list. If the CC was “headache”, the LOCATES for the HPI might look like the following example:

· Location: Head

· Onset: 3 days ago

· Character: Pounding, pressure around the eyes and temples

· Associated signs and symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia

· Timing: After being on the computer all day at work

· Exacerbating/relieving factors: Light bothers eyes; Aleve makes it tolerable but not completely better

· Severity: 7/10 pain scale

Current Medications: Include dosage, frequency, length of time used, and reason for use; also include over the counter (OTC) or homeopathic products.

Allergies: Include medication, food, and environmental allergies separately, including a description of what the allergy is (i.e., angioedema, anaphylaxis, etc.). This will help determine a true reaction versus intolerance.

PMHx: Include immunization status (note date of
last tetanus for all adults), past major illnesses, and surgeries. Depending on the CC, more info is sometimes needed.

Soc and Substance Hx: Include occupation and major hobbies, family status, tobacco and alcohol use (previous and current use), and any other pertinent data. Always add some health promo question here, such as whether they use seat belts all the time or whether they have working smoke detectors in the house, living environment, text/cell phone use while driving, and support system.

Fam Hx: Illnesses with possible genetic predisposition, contagious, or chronic illnesses. Reason for death of any deceased first-degree relatives should be included. Include parents, grandparents, siblings, and children. Include grandchildren if pertinent.

Surgical Hx: Prior surgical procedures.

Mental Hx: Diagnosis and treatment. Current concerns (anxiety and/or depression). History of self-harm practices and/or suicidal or homicidal ideation.

Violence Hx: Concern or issues about safety (personal, home, community, sexual (current and historical).

Reproductive Hx: Menstrual history (date of LMP), Pregnant (yes or no), Nursing/lactating (yes or no), contraceptive use (method used), types of intercourse (oral, anal, vaginal, other, any sexual concerns).

ROS (review of symptoms): Cover all body systems that may help you include or rule out a differential diagnosis You should list each system as follows:



EENT (eyes, ears, nose, and throat):


Note: You should list these in bullet format, and document the systems in order from head to toe.

Example of Complete ROS:

GENERAL: No weight loss, fever, chills, weakness, or fatigue.


· Eyes: No visual loss, blurred vision, double vision or yellow sclerae.

· Ears, Nose, Throat: No hearing loss, sneezing, congestion, runny nose, or sore throat.

SKIN: No rash or itching.

CARDIOVASCULAR: No chest pain, chest pressure or chest discomfort. No palpitations or edema.

RESPIRATORY: No shortness of breath, cough or sputum.

GASTROINTESTINAL: No anorexia, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. No abdominal pain or blood.

GENITOURINARY: Burning on urination. Last menstrual period (LMP), MM/DD/YYYY.

NEUROLOGICAL: No headache, dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness or tingling in the extremities. No change in bowel or bladder control.

MUSCULOSKELETAL: No muscle, back pain, joint pain or stiffness.

HEMATOLOGIC: No anemia, bleeding or bruising.

LYMPHATICS: No enlarged nodes. No history of splenectomy.

PSYCHIATRIC: No history of depression or anxiety.

ENDOCRINOLOGIC: No reports of sweating, cold or heat intolerance. No polyuria or polydipsia.

REPRODUCTIVE: Not pregnant and no recent pregnancy. No reports of vaginal or penile discharge. Not sexually active.

ALLERGIES: No history of asthma, hives, eczema or rhinitis.


Physical exam: From head-to-toe, include
what you see, hear, and feel when doing your physical exam. You only need to examine the systems that are pertinent to the CC, HPI, and History.
Do not use “WNL” or “normal.” You must describe what you see. Always document in head to toe format (i.e., General: Head: EENT: etc.).

Diagnostic results: Include any labs, x-rays, or other diagnostics that are needed to develop the differential diagnoses (support with evidenced and guidelines).


Differential diagnoses: List a minimum of three differential diagnoses. Your primary or presumptive diagnosis should be at the top of the list. For each diagnosis, provide supportive documentation with evidence-based guidelines.


Includes documentation of diagnostic studies that will be obtained, referrals to other health-care providers, therapeutic interventions, education, disposition of the patient, and any planned follow up visits. Each diagnosis or condition documented in the assessment should be addressed in the plan. The details of the plan should follow an orderly manner.

Also included in this section is the reflection. Reflect on this case, and discuss what you learned, including any “aha” moments or connections you made.

Also include in your reflection, a discussion related to health promotion and disease prevention taking into consideration patient factors (such as, age, ethnic group, etc.), PMH, and other risk factors (e.g., socio-economic, cultural background, etc.).


You are required to include at least three evidence-based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines, which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure to use correct APA 7th edition formatting.

© 2020 Walden University 1

Complete the Focused




P Note Template provided for the patient in the case study. Be sure to address the following:

· Subjective: What was the patient’s subjective complaint? What details did the patient provide regarding their history of present illness and personal and medical history? Include a list of prescription and over-the-counter drugs the patient is currently taking. Compare this list to the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria®, and consider alternative drugs if appropriate.


Provide a review of systems.

· Objective: What observations did you note from the physical assessment? What were the lab, imaging, or functional assessments results? How would you interpret and address the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)?

· Assessment: Provide a minimum of three differential diagnoses. List them from top priority to least priority. Compare the diagnostic criteria for each, and explain what rules each differential in or out. Explain you critical thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.

· Plan: Provide a detailed treatment plan for the patient that addresses each diagnosis, as applicable. Include documentation of diagnostic studies that will be obtained, referrals to other healthcare providers, therapeutic interventions, education, disposition of the patient, caregiver support, and any planned follow-up visits. Provide a discussion of health promotion and disease prevention for the patient, taking into consideration patient factors, past medical history (PMH), and other risk factors. Finally, include a reflection statement on the case that describes insights or lessons learned.

· Provide at least three evidence-based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines, which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnoses. Be sure they are current (no more than 5 years old) and support the treatment plan in following current standards of care. Follow APA 7th edition formatting. 

Case Study 1:

HPI: Ms. Peters is a 70-year-old female who is brought to your office by her son with reports of acute confusion (more than usual) and some agitation and restlessness. She has a known history of dementia, managed with Aricept 10 mg. daily. Her son, Jared, reports that 2 days ago she began to become more confused than usual and very easily agitated. He reports that yesterday, she couldn’t remember where she was in her own home. She had a doctor’s appointment 3 days ago and her HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide) was increased to 50 mg. due to increased bp’s.

Ms. Peter’s last Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score was 18/30. The assessment was repeated, and the score remained unchanged.

Ms. Peters and her son denies her having any falls or contributing traumas recently. She denies any changes in diet or routine regimens. No reported dysuria, no fever, nausea, or vomiting.

Note: Be sure to review the MMSE and how to interpret results (

Mental State Assessment Tests

). Make sure you document the patient’s score in your SOAP note document. Also review the Geriatric Depression Assessment (

Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]).

Ms. Peters is a 70-year-old female who is alert but easily distracted, at times, during today’s clinical interview. Her eye contact is fair. Speech is clear and coherent but tangential at times. She makes no unusual motor movements and demonstrates no tics. She denies any visual or auditory hallucinations. She denies any suicidal thoughts or ideations. She is alert but disoriented to place and time. She denies any falls, denies any pain. Her son does say she has had some “stumbling” and balance issues but no reported falls.

All other Review of System and Physical Exam findings are negative other than stated.

Vital Signs: 98.1 1


/64 HR-72 20

PMH: Hypertension, Diabetes, Osteoporosis, Chronic Allergic Rhinitis





Multivitamin daily

· Losartan 50mg daily

· HCTZ 50mg daily


Fish Oil 1 tablet daily

· Glyburide 5mg daily

· Metformin 500mg BID

· Donepezil 10mg daily

· Alendronate 70mg orally once a week

Social History: As stated in Case Study

ROS: As stated in Case study

Diagnostics/Assessments done:

1. CXR—no cardiopulmonary findings. WNL

2. CT head—diffuse Cerebral Atrophy

3. MMSE—Ms. Peters scored 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention and calculation, and recall at a previous visit. At today’s visit, there is no change. The score suggests

moderate dementia.

4. Hemoglobin A1C7.2%

5. Basic Metabolic Panel as shown below






























>or=60 mL/min/1.73m2


See below sample in yellow – Please do not make it equal as this below is from other student.

Patient Information:

Ms. P., 70-year-old, Female, White


Chief Complaint: Ms. Peters comes into the office with her son due to worsening confusion,

agitation, and restlessness.

History of Present Illness: Ms. Peters is a 70-year-old female who comes to the clinic

accompanied by her son, Jared, with reports of worsening confusion, some agitation, and

restlessness. Jared recalls that two days ago, her mom became more confused than usual and gets

agitated quickly. He states that her mom could not remember where she was at her home

yesterday. He added that her mom was seen by her doctor three days ago, and her HCTZ

(hydrochlorothiazide) was increased to 50 mg due to elevated blood pressure.

Current Medications:

Multivitamin daily

Losartan 50 mg 1 tablet daily

HCTZ 50 mg 1 tablet daily

Fish Oil 1 tablet daily

Glyburide 5 mg daily

Metformin 500 mg 1 tablet BID

Donepezil 10 mg 1 tablet daily

Alendronate 70 mg 1 tablet orally once a week


Past Medical History:

Dementia, Hypertension, Diabetes, Osteoporosis, Chronic Allergic Rhinitis

Immunizations: will obtain records

Social History: Lives at home with son. Denies tobacco and drug use.

Family History: No surgical history was reported.

Mental History: She has a history of dementia. She denies any visual or auditory

hallucinations. She denies any suicidal thoughts or ideation. Confusion more than usual 2 days


Violence History: She denies any issues about personal, home, community, and sexual violence.

Reproductive History: Postmenopausal

Review of Systems:

 General: No fever, chills, weakness, fatigue, or weight loss.

 Head: Denies any head injury or trauma.

 Eye: No blurry vision, double vision, or visual loss. No eye pain.

 Ears, Nose, Throat: No loss or changes in hearing, ringing, and discharges. Reports

balance issues and stumbling as noted by sob. No sneezing, congestion, runny nose, or

sore throat.

 Skin: No rash or itching.

 Cardiovascular: No chest pain, chest pressure or discomfort. No palpitations or leg


 Genitourinary: No dysuria, hematuria, polyuria, or nocturia. No breast changes, lumps,

and discharges. No history of breast cancer. Unknown mammogram history.

 Musculoskeletal: No muscle weakness, back pain, joint pain or stiffness. Denies any

falls. Some stumbling and balance issues as reported by her son.

 Neurological: No headache, dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness or tingling

in the extremities. Memory changes reported by son. No history of stroke.

 Hematologic: No anemia, bleeding, or bruising. No blood transfusion and clotting

disorders reported.

 Lymphatics: No enlarged nodes or history of splenectomy.

 Pshychiatric: No history of depression or anxiety. Denies any visual or auditory

hallucinations. No suicidal thoughts or ideations. History of dementia.

 Endocrinologic: No sweating, cold, or heat intolerance. History of


 Reproductive: Postmenopausal. No vaginal discharge.

 Allergies: No history of asthma, hives, eczema. Has history of chronic allergic rhinitis.

Reports allergy to Atorvastatin.


Physical Exam:

General: Alert but disoriented to time and place. Appropriately dressed, well-groomed and

appears well nourished. Speech is clear and coherent but easily distracted. Limited eye contact.

Vital Signs: BP: 120/64 HR: 72, regular R&R RR: 20, unlabored Temp: 98.1


Head: Normocephalic and no signs of injury or trauma. Intact facial sensation.

Eyes: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation. No redness or exudate. Eye

brows symmetrical.

Ears: Symmetrical. No swelling noted. No discharges. Tympanic membrane intact with no


Nose: Symmetrical. No nasal deviation, nasal flaring polyps noted.

Throat: No erythema noted or exudates noted. Gag reflex intact.

Neck: Supple with full range of motion. No masses palpated. No tracheal deviation noted.

Respiratory: Clear lungs in all lung fields to auscultation with inspiration and expiration.

Bilateral chest with equal rise and fall on inspiration and expiration.

Cardiovascular: Heart rate 72, regular rate and rhythm, S1 and S2 noted. No murmurs, gallops,

and rubs. No bruits noted on abdominal aorta. Peripheral pulses intact. No edema noted.

Gastrointestinal: Abdomen soft, non-tender. Active bowel sounds in all quadrants.

Genitourinary: Bladder not distended.

Musculoskeletal: Fully weight bearing with some gait disturbances noted. Full ROM to upper

extremities, spine, hips, and lower extremities.

Integumentary: No significant rash or lesions observed. Skin color appropriate for age. Skin

warm to touch with skin turgor appropriate for age.

Neurologic: CN II – XII grossly intact. Noted some gait and balance disturbances. No unusual

movements or tics noted. Sensations on both arms and legs intact. Deep tendon reflex to lower

and upper extremities 2+.

Psychiatric: Mood and affect are appropriate but appears easily distracted.

Hematologic: No bruising or discoloration noted on exam.

Lymphatics: No enlarged lymph nodes palpated.

Diagnostic results:

1. CXR – No cardiopulmonary findings. Within normal limits.

2. CT Head – Diffuse cerebral atrophy.

3. MMSE – Score 18/30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention, and

calculation, and recall at a previous visit. No changes in today’s visit. Score suggests

moderate dementia.

4. Labs – Hemoglobin A1C 7.2 %

5. Basic Metabolic Panel –


Glucose 90 65-99

Sodium 130 135-146

Potassium 3.4 3.5-5.3

Chloride 104 98-110

Carbon dioxide 29 19-30

Calcium 9.0 8.6-10.3

BUN 20 7-25

Creatinine 1.0 0.72-1.25

GFR 77 >or=60 ml/min/1.73m2


Differential diagnoses:

1. Dementia

Dementia is a clinical condition characterized with a cognitive decline from a previous level of

baseline function that interferes with activities of daily living (ADLs) (Kennedy-Malone, MartinPlank, & Duffy, 2019). Age is the most significant risk factor for dementia with prevalence rate

doubling every five years from the age of 65-85 (Dening and Aldridge, 2021). Ms. Peters showed

signs of confusion, worse than her baseline as indicated by her inability to recognize where she

was in her own home. She also has a history of dementia. Her MMSE score of 18/30 confirms

this primary diagnosis. dementia (Myrberg et al., 2020). The patient’s MMSE score suggest

moderate dementia. The MMSE is an 11-question tool that tests five areas of cognitive function:

orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall and language (Laske & Stephens, 2018).

The perfect score is 30, with a score of 23 and lower indicates cognitive impairment (Laske &

Stephens, 2018). Advanced age, recent memory impairment, and changes in personality –

agitation and restlessness, are positive indicators of dementia.

2. Depression

Depression in elderly patients is a common disorder that affect their quality of life. Depression

contributes to adverse functional and social outcomes of the said population. Acute confusion

that was worse than baseline, agitation, and restlessness are positive indicators for depression.

Confusion or attention problems due to depression may also be attributed to AD, dementia, or

other brain disorders (National Institute on Aging, 2020); thus, it is crucial to rule out depression

to determine the primary diagnosis. The Geriatric Depression Scale is a self-rated questionnaire,

available in long form (30 items) and a short-form version (15 items) for diagnosing depression

with a cutoff score of eleven in the long form and seven points in the short form (Blackburn et

al., 2017). The reliability, however, decreases with increasing cognitive impairment. The said

screening tool will be included in the plan to rule out the diagnosis of depression.

3. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

AD is type of dementia that is characterized by a progressive loss of episodic memory and

cognitive function, which later causes deficiencies in language and visuospatial skills, and often

accompanied by behavioral disorders such as aggressiveness, apathy, and depression (Silva et al.,

2019). In assessing Mrs. Peters was reported to have stumbling and balance issues. This could be

an indication of a decline in visuospatial skills, indicating AD. Agitation and restlessness were

also noted with the patient which are positive indicators associated with AD. Current tests

performed does not confirm this diagnosis, thus, tests to check for biomarkers of cerebrospinal

fluid and positron emission 10 tomography in combination with several relatively new clinical

criteria can aid in confirming this diagnosis.


1. Order additional diagnostic studies.

a. Complete blood count and urinalysis can help rule out infections that may be causing

the changes in cognition.

b. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis will be ordered to rule out any specific infections affecting

the brain.

c. Toxicology screens for drug and alcohol use will also determine if the patient’s

behavior is related to controlled substances.

d. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – can exclude potentially reversible dementia

causes such as hydrocephalus, subdural hematoma, stroke, and intra and extra-axial tumors

(Panegyres et al., 2016). The CT scan shows diffuse cerebral atrophy, but MRI has a higher

resolution that can detect subtle and anatomical and vascular changes.

e. Repeat Hemoglobin A1C in 3 months. Current result shows inadequate control of

blood sugar which may be contributing to the changes in the patient’s cognitive and functional


f. Perform Geriatric Depression Scale to determine depression.

2. Therapeutic interventions:

a. Continue Donezepil 10 mg tablet daily. Donezepil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, is the

recommended therapy for mild, moderate, or severe AD dementia (Panegyres et al., 2016).

b. Discontinue Glyburide component in the management of delirium, dementia, and AD.

The American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria identifies medications to avoid in geriatric

patients. The Beers criteria strongly recommends glyburide to be avoided in older adults due to

higher risk of severe prolonged hypoglycemia (Al-Azayzih et al., 2019). Hypoglycemia can alter

a patient’s level of alertness. A fall in blood sugar can cause confusion, which was one of Mrs.

Peter’s presenting symptoms. Continue Metformin.

c. Continue the rest of her current medications to maintain control of blood pressure and


3. Refer patient for psychiatric evaluation can help determine if delirium, depression or other

mental health condition is contributing to the patient’s symptoms.

4. Education: Health promotion tasks.

a. Proper nutrition to control diabetes and high blood pressure to improve overall health

and reduce risk of worsening neurodegenerative disease.

b. Physical exercise to preserve strength and prevent loss of agility associated with age

and decrease neuropsychiatric symptoms. Less brain atrophy was noted in patients with AD who

had regular exercise (Panegyres et al., 2016).

c. Offer availability of influenza vaccine to patient.

d. Establish a safe environment. The patient may need assistance with activities of daily


5. Follow up in one week for reevaluation. Perform a repeat MMSE to check for worsening of

dementia or AD. For worsening of symptoms or if new acute symptoms appear, take patient to

the emergency department for evaluation and treatment.


Evaluating the case study helped a clinician analyzing the importance of obtaining an

adequate information in performing a SOAP note. There are some information missing in the

subjective and objective assessments that could assist in the creation of the assessment and plan.

A recent study discussed that disparities in the prevalence of dementia was not statistically

different for whites, blacks, and Hispanics (Chena & Zissimopoulosa, 2018); however, it is

important to note that the combination of socioeconomic 13 and cultural factors can affect the

compliance of patients in treatment plans. Will need to obtain immunization history and

information regarding the history of eye exam, colonoscopy, pap smear, and mammogram were

not supplied. Annual health screenings will aid in discovering diseases before they worsen,

especially with elderly patients who have greater risks due to comorbidities associated with

advanced age. Medication reminder is important to older patients as well. It is important to know

when the patient last took her medications to evaluate compliance to therapy. Literature showed

that poor adherence in medication regimen include patients with many comorbidities and

cognitive impairment (Smaje et al., 2018). The patient’s HgbA1c was elevated and patient

showed signs of confusion in her visit. Medication compliance can determine if the patient’s

symptoms were dosage related or a compliance issue to taking her diabetic and dementia

medications. The case study also did not say about Mrs. Peter’s family history. Although family

history is not necessary to develop AD and other dementias, it is important to note that that when

they run in families, genetic factors, environmental factors, or both may play a role (Panegyres et

al., 2016). Safety concerns for patients with dementia, AD, and delirium would include

wandering, fall risks, and inability to perform activities of daily living; thus, the importance of a

good support system is vital to ensure their safety.


Psychosocial disorders in the geriatric population is prevalent and proper assessment and

management are necessary to preserve their functional abilities. As advanced practice nurses, it is

important to obtain adequate information to be able to develop appropriate treatment plans,

including diagnostics and laboratory orders, for patients with psychosocial disorders. With the

anatomical changes related to advanced age, mental function changes along with it.

Understanding what happens during the aging process will allow the practitioner differentiate

between symptoms that are normal and those considered abnormal. For the older adult, physical

health, mental health, spiritually, environmental and social problems interact to complicate the

life and function of the older patient, caregiver, and family.


Al-Azayzih, A., Alamoori, R., & Altawalbeh, S. M. (2019). Potentially inappropriate

medications prescribing according to Beers criteria among elderly outpatients in Jordan:

A cross-sectional study. Pharmacy Practice, 17(2), 1439. https://doi.org/


Arevalo-Rodriguez, I., Smailagic, N., Roque-Fguls, M., Ciapponi, A., Sanchez-Perez, E.,

Giannakou, A., Pedraza, O. L., Bonfill-Cosp, X., & Cullum, S. (2015). Mini-mental state

examination for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in people with

mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3).

https://doi.org/ 10.1002/14651858.CD010783.pub2

Arvanitakis, Z., Shah, R. C., & Bennett, D. A. (2019). Diagnosis and management of dementia:

Review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 322(16), 1589- 1599.


Blackburn, P., Wilkins-Ho, M., & Wiese, B. (2017). Depression in older adults: Diagnosis and

management. BC Medical Journal, 59(3), 171-177.


Chena, C., & Zissimopoulosa, J. M. (2018). Racial and ethnic differences in trends in dementia

prevalence and risk factors in the United States. Alzheimers Dementia, 4, 510- 520.


Dening, K. H., & Aldridge, Z. (2021). Dementia: recognition and cognitive testing in primary

care settings. Journal of Community Nursing, 31(9), 43-49. Retrieved from

Kennedy-Malone, L., Martin-Planl, L., & Duffy, E. (2019). Advanced practice nursing in the

care of older adults (2nd ed.) F.A. Davis.

Laske, R. A. & Stephens, B. A. (2018). Confusion states: Sorting out delirium, dementia, and

depression. Nursing made incredibly made easy, 16(6), 13-16. Retrieved from doi:


National Institute on Aging. (2020). Depression and older adults.


Rosen, T., Connors, S., Clark, S., Halpern, A., Stern, M. E., DeWald, J., Lachs, M. S., &

Flomenbaum, N. (2015). Assessment and management of delirium in older adults in the

emergency department: Literature review to inform development of a novel clinical

protocol. Advance Emergency Nursing Journal, 37(3), 183– E3.


Silva, M. V., Loures, C. M., Alves, L. C., De Souza, L. C., Borges, K. B., & Carvalho, M. D.

(2019). Alzheimer’s disease: Risk factors and potentially protective measures. Journal of

Biomedical Science, 26(33). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0524-y

Smaje, A., Weston-Clark, M., Raj, R., Orlu, M., Davis, D., & Rawle, M. (2018). Factors

associated with medication adherence in older patients: A systematic review. Aging

Medicine, 1(3), 254-266. https://doi.org/10.1002/agm2.12045

Myrberg, K., Hyden, L. C., & Samuelsson, C. (2020). The mini-mental state examination

(MMSE) from a language perspective: An analysis of test interaction. Clinical

Linguistics and Phonetics, 34(7), 652-670. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699206.2019.1687

Panegyres, P. K., Berry, R., & Burchell, J. (2016). Early dementia screening. Diagnostics, 6(1).

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