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At age thirty-two, Ashley believed that she had landed an opportunity to accelerate her career as a leader and manager. Ashley had worked four years as a manufacturing manager in the industrial pump division of a conglomerate. Based on her outstanding performance, she was offered the opportunity to be the division head of a small and troubled unit of the company, Ultra Covers. The division in question manufactures after-market stylish covers for smartphones, laptops, and tablet computers. Although the products are of high quality, Ultra Covers has been losing money for several years. Competition in the field of stylish covers for electronic devices is intense, and profit margins are thin. Despite these challenges, Ashley took just one hour to accept the offer. She told the top-management committee, “I know I can convert Ultra Covers into a proud and profitable business unit.

” Thirty days later, Ashley began her new position as division president. The former president was reassigned to a plant manager position in another unit of the conglomerate. Ashley’s first move was to conduct a listening tour of the company, interacting with workers and managers at all levels of the division. She also spoke with the major customers and several kiosk operators who sold Ultra Covers at shopping malls. After listening to so many people, making observations of her own, and analyzing financial and production data from the Ultra Cover division, Ashley swung into action. Her first step was to inform the manufacturing group that if they could not reduce manufacturing costs by 10 percent within six months, she might shut down domestic manufacturing and outsource all manufacturing to China. Ultra Covers would then become a sales and distribution unit, with almost no manufacturing.

Ashley’s next major initiative came in a meeting with the sales manager, Ken. She told him that his goal for the upcoming fiscal year is to increase sales by 15
percent, and that no excuses would be acceptable. Ken explained that his sales force is highly motivated, and that they are doing everything they can to boost sales, including intense Internet marketing. He said, “The channels are already saturated with decorative covers for portable electronic devices. A 15 percent jump in sales is unrealistic.” Ashley told Ken it was his job to find a way to increase sales—particularly if he wanted to keep his job.

Another initiative Ashley took was to order man-agers and supervisors to find ways to reduce division costs by 10 percent in the upcoming fiscal year. “Do whatever it takes,” said Ashley. “Our costs are too high for our sales volume. Adjust the thermostats, do not replace some of the workers who quit or retire, cut back on scrap. And when you make photocopies, remember to print on both sides of the sheet of paper.”

Ashley began to sense from comments she heard from her staff that perhaps her turnaround efforts appeared to be a little harsh. Based on this feedback, she decided to prepare a video that would be distributed on the Ultra Cover intranet. A central part of her message was that about four billion people in the world use some type of mobile device or computer, and that only 3 percent of them are purchasing a cover for these devices. She concluded, “We have a potential market of about 3.9 billion people throughout the world who could use at least one Ultra Cover. We have just begun our journey to greatness.”

Unit V Case Study


In Chapter 3 of the textbook, locate and read Leadership Case Problem B. In a two-page essay, address the prompts below.

· Contrast transformational and charismatic leadership.

· Based upon the scenario in Case Problem B, research and identify which leadership style you think would be the most effective for this scenario (other than transformational and charismatic). Apply creativity and innovation to the efficacy of the leadership style you choose for this scenario.

· Address the efficacy or shortcomings of Ashley’s efforts.

· Apply transformational leadership directly to Ashley’s scenario. Provide any recommendations to ensure transformational leadership is effective in the scenario.

· Explain how charismatic leadership (e.g., striving to create interdependency) could support Ashley’s success.

Please provide a meaningful introduction stating the purpose of the paper and key points to be addressed. Also, ensure you include a synthesizing conclusion. At a minimum, please include the textbook as a source. The required title page and reference page do not count toward the page requirement. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.

Psychological Foundations of Leadership 1

  • Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V
  • Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

    5. Differentiate leadership styles.
    5.1 Contrast transformational and charismatic leadership.
    5.2 Distinguish leadership styles in a scenario.
    5.3 Apply creativity and innovation to the efficacy of leadership styles.

    Learning Outcomes

  • Learning Activity
  • 5.1

  • Unit Lesson
  • Chapter 3
    Unit V Case Study

    Unit Lesson
    Chapter 3
    Unit V Case Study


    Unit Lesson
    Chapter 3
    Chapter 11
    Unit V Case Study

  • Required Unit Resources
  • Chapter 3: Charismatic and

    Transformational Leadership

    Chapter 11: Creativity, Innovation, and Leadership

    Unit Lesson


    Welcome to Unit V! As we continue our journey in exploration of the psychological foundations of leadership,
    we will now turn our attention toward how to differentiate leadership styles. At first thought, you may think,
    leadership is leadership, right? However, as we have previously examined, there are a host of different
    leadership styles. For the purpose of this lesson, we will examine the charismatic and transformational
    leadership styles in action and offer anecdotal situations to consider, further propelling you to critical thought
    as related to both your experience in future situations that you will encounter where these time-proven styles
    can and will deliver needed organizational change.

    First, we will explore the multiple dimensions of charismatic leadership. Second, we will learn about the
    purpose and power of transformational leadership. Finally, we will investigate how creative thinking and
    innovation are critical components for both of these styles.

    Charismatic Leadership

    What is charismatic leadership? As defined by DuBrin (2019), it is the power to influence based upon positive
    and compelling qualities that fervently inspire followership. Who are some of the charismatic leaders of recent
    time? Perhaps, former president Barack Obama is an individual to be known for his charisma based upon his
    ability to unite and inspire people around a unified cause. After years of international conflicts, a depressed
    economy, tensions among people of many races and cultures, Obama’s message was clear; welcome to a

    Leadership Styles

    Psychological Foundations of Leadership 2


    better tomorrow based upon the vision afforded by broad-based change. His words clearly offered aspiration
    and inspiration that captured the feelings of the American people by relating values critical to all (Northouse,
    2018). He used the power of persuasion supported by personal and moral credibility with a clear effort to
    appeal to what was most important to the masses. To greater extent, his successes were based upon
    leveraging his personal charisma toward building relationships grounded in positivity. At the heart of his
    strategy was a focus on forging relationships strongly embedded with respect, faith, and mutual consideration.
    During his two-term presidency, Obama carefully crafted high levels of interdependency with followers. His
    charismatic leadership style was further bolstered by his ability to deploy the contingency theory, capturing
    the needs and delivering what was needed. During President Obama’s tenure, he led efforts collaboratively
    with his staff to enable the capture and death of perhaps one of the world’s most notorious terrorists, Osama
    Bin Laden, in May of 2011. In live news coverage with the American people from the White House, his
    message delivered great comfort to the hundreds of thousands who suffered loss, bringing to a consummate
    closure the days of terror that were led and inspired by this individual. President Obama delivered upon what
    he had promised, supported by charisma in both words and action.

    Transformational Leadership

    We now turn our focus to transformational leadership. In following prior thought, what is transformational
    leadership? DuBrin (2019) posits this style is marked by the abilities of an individual to deliver initiatives that
    enable significant change. However, by doing so, the individual still maintains a sense of interdependency as
    marked by charismatic leadership. Who, then, is a transformational leader of our time? Perhaps the late Steve
    Jobs, former CEO of Apple Inc. comes to mind. From his really humble beginnings working with Apple
    computers, Jobs progressively rose to become one of the greatest catalysts of change in history. Consider
    the effect that Jobs had and still has upon life as we know it. Do you have a MacBook or an iPhone? Long
    gone are the days of using a typewriter or a desktop computer that would occupy the surface of a large table.
    No longer are there steadfast requirements for employees or students to work in confined spaces with
    limitations. This is, in fact, transformation.

    Leadership Styles

    Let’s now consider how creativity and innovation are critical components of both of these leadership styles.
    DuBrin (2019) asserts that creative leaders require knowledge, cognitive abilities, personality, and a passion
    for the task. As we reflect upon President Obama and Steve Jobs, it is clear that both individuals possessed
    the skills and acumen, further supported by a driven personality and passion for achieving the visions that
    both possessed. For example, Obama led diligent efforts toward transforming the nature of public education
    in the United States. He challenged educators to think beyond the administration of testing their individual
    nature, their culture, and the communities where they live. This inspiration led to significant change that still
    drives impact in the classroom today. Then, Steve Jobs had a vision, one of which concerned how computing
    via enhanced technologies would change the world as we know it. In concert with the creation and
    development of the internet, Jobs developed devices unfamiliar to the masses—instruments that would drive
    change through demonstrated creative thinking—rich in concepts beyond our wildest imagination.

    Psychological Foundations of Leadership 3



    This lesson has examined charismatic and transformational leadership, and both styles were connected to
    well-known leaders of our time. In addition, we examine how creative thinking and the power of innovation
    support these styles exhibited by each of the leaders. Returning to considering the foundations of
    psychological leadership, we hopefully see clear evidence of each in direct application. Charisma enables
    leadership to deliver a vision, and transformation supports needed change. As you proceed in your
    educational journey, how will you benchmark these leaders? What personal skills and traits do you possess
    that are aligned to President Obama and Steve Jobs? Both individuals came from humble beginnings to
    positions of power that have effectively changed the world over the past 25 years.


    DuBrin, A. J. (2019). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.

    Northouse, P. G. (2018). Leadership: Theory and practice (8th ed.). SAGE.

      Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V
      Learning Activity
      Required Unit Resources
      Unit Lesson
      Charismatic Leadership
      Transformational Leadership
      Leadership Styles

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