Select a research topic that you are interested in but also one that is feasable given the time constraints to explore (10 weeks). What are the research question (s) is/are you would like to answer?  Find something that is specific and that has concepts that can be measured.

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Complete a Short 2-3 page summary of your research topic.  This assignment can form the basis for the introduction to your Research Paper Proposal. Introduce the topic, discuss why you think research is needed and develop some research questions you would like answered as part of your study. This is essentially the WHAT and WHY part of your paper.  WHAT do you want to study or explore and WHY does it need to be studied?


Punishment of criminals is among the most common communal responses or interventions to criminal practices across most societies. Probationers are individuals who have been charged for committing criminal offences but rather than incarceration, are put under a period of supervised restriction within the society. A probation Service Order is among the most common forms of consideration rather than incarceration, especially for petty criminal offenses. This intervention is mainly applied as a societal, judicial penalty for minor or first-time offenders. This research study focuses its attention on various issues touching on probationers, including but not limited to; the origin of probation as a form of punishment, conditions that offenders have to have attained in order to be allowed to serve their time as probationers, and the advantages and disadvantages of applying this form of punishment. It shall also address the methods deployed to enhance the rehabilitation of probationers and the challenges that the probation service is exposed to when applied to convicts.

Prior research addressing societal correction programs, probation included, appears to mainly direct their attention to how such schemes permit the criminal justice system to grow by taking in more people under the state’s control. And although numerous individuals are held as probationers, surprisingly, there are very few research studies that shift the focus to researching the existing interconnection between probationers’, repudiation, and jail and jail occupiers (Skeem et al., 2017). For this reason, there is little knowledge and understanding with regards to the increase in the size of probationers, thereby leading to mass incarceration, or if probation functions or happens to compensate and neutralize the increased incarceration rates. Therefore, this research interests intend to establish and scrutinize whether probation serves its intention, whether it is an effective option rather than incarceration, or whether probation is the main contributor to probation revocations, thereby leading to high incarceration rates.

Carrying out thorough scrutiny and review of the pertinent literature review will help in laying a foundation for this research study, and more especially by providing the related history of probationers in order to assist in illustrating and identifying the elements fostering the shifting intention and convictions from rehabilitative to managerial. The research study shall then address the new penology structure of the criminal justice system and utilize the structure as a substructure to understand the shifting probation conducts, as well as the outcomes and repercussions of these changes by incorporating the idea of net widening and back-end net widening to assist in studying and understanding the contradiction in terms of probationers’ conducts (Guo and Metcalfe, 2022). It shall also address some of the research studies related to risk identification in order to offer further insights and analysis on how the practices of probationers have the potential of diverting or contributing to the high rates of incarceration in the population.

Although law-making related to probationers is clear and to the point in general, and while this form of intervention has proved to be rather cost-effective in terms of both financial and resources and humane alternative in comparison to incarceration, it is yet to be illustrated as to whether both the probationers and community at large have gained any benefits from the practice. Its effects have rarely been evaluated and assessed systematically, receiving little feedback from independent appraisals on the deployment of probation in order to help decide whether an authentic and reliable probation program has been established and if it has the capacity to attain or meet the law-making aims (Campbell et al., 2019). In reality, the variance between conduct and acknowledgment may help illustrate probation’s decline in different societies, especially in developing nations. The management and conduct of probationers seem to have not realized the risk indicators and have, therefore, failed to welcome and accept the new circumspections based on factual findings. However, while there may be doubts regarding the subject, probation has a huge potential as an alternative to incarceration, most notably in countries that face the challenge of overcrowding in prisons, and within communities that consider probation as a traditional means of dealing with offenders.

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