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You have just been hired as the senior environmental manager for a large corporate agricultural complex in the midwestern part of the United States, and you will be responsible for keeping your organization in regulatory compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and your state’s department of environmental quality (DEQ).

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You quickly realize that your company has several active effluent permits (one for combined stormwater/wastewater and one for solid waste hauled off-site) but no pollution prevention plan (P3). After visiting with the company’s executive team, you learn that they have never been alerted of the need for a P3, and they want you to fully explain to them why the organization needs one.

They have asked you to be as comprehensive as possible so that you can ultimately present this to the board of directors for approval. As such, you have decided to conduct a P3 Pre-Assessment Study to study and document the entire situation, knowing that this will help you learn the organization’s complete situation, even while being able to adequately convey it to the board of directors.

Your organization, ABC Agriculture Production, Inc., has the following general operational characteristics:

a. It is situated on 640 acres (one section) of land in southwestern Nebraska.

b. Adjacent to the 640 acres (to the west) is a private rancher’s property sustaining a commercially leased and producing natural gas well.

c. Adjacent to the 640 acres (to the east) is a small, actively running salt-fork of a major river (Platte River).

d. Confined animal feed operations (CAFO) barns and production offices cover approximately 160 acres, with separate, large, full barns for swine, chicken, and beef cattle operations, one feed mill, and six barn-discharge wastewater lagoons.

e. Corn and alfalfa hay fields span 320 acres, with groundwater irrigation wells supplying several large center-pivot irrigation sprinkler systems for both crops.

f. Gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O, or calcium sulfate dihydrate) and caliche (CaCO3, or calcium carbonate) open pit excavation mines are located on the remaining 160 acres, and the products are mined and sold by the truckload.

g. Crops are routinely fertilized with commercial nitrogen fertilizers, weeds are controlled with commercial herbicides, and pests are controlled with commercial pesticides.

h. Animals are routinely vaccinated (injection) and supplemented with vitamins and antibiotics (in both feed and water).

i. Deceased animals’ carcasses are disposed of in a pit and covered with hydrated lime (Ca[OH]2, or calcium hydroxide) daily, with weekly pit coverage for a complete carcass burial.

j. There is an EPA-registered National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit active with active outfalls for the CAFO wastewater lagoons and crop fields, operationalized as a combined stormwater/wastewater effluent permit. Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) includes limits for the following:

150 ppm

100 ppm




a. Parameter



> 11.0 mg/L (ppm)


150 ppm



100 ppm



500 ppm

ammonia (NH3)

300 ppm

fecal coliform

non-detect (


) (via EPA method 1681)

glyphosate (herbicide)


atrazine (herbicide)

chlorpyrifos (pesticide)

malathion (pesticide)

Phosphorous (P)

2.5 ppm

Potassium (K)

1.5 ppm

Calcium (Ca)

2.0 ppm

Magnesium (Mg)

0.5 ppm


6.5 – 8.5

pharmaceutical scan

0.0001 ppm (via EPA method 1694)


± 10% ambient water temperatures

oil and grease

15 ppm (via EPA method 1664)


< 10 %


< 5,000 gallons per day (gpd)

k. There is a hazardous waste permit for disposing of all discarded pesticide, herbicide, and pharmaceutical wastes.

l. Wind speeds average 12 mph, and rainfall averages 21 inches/year.

m. High/Low temps range from winter (40°F/14°F) to summer (91°F/63°F).

n. Average humidity is 65.8% with an average dew point of 37.9°F.

Beginning with this unit (Unit II) and continuing through Unit VII, you will develop a single document as your P3 Pre-Assessment Study. You will construct one section of this document per unit, submitting the completed work as a mini-project for every unit. By the end of Unit VII, you will have completed a single document that is six sections long containing all six mini-projects that also includes a title page, abstract page, and references page.

For each unit, you will make corrections to the previous unit’s work, and then draft the new section on the same document. You will format this document as an APA-Style research paper (example paper using 7th edition APA Style is linked below). For your convenience, a specific template has been provided for you to use for this project.

Download the class project template .

Provide your name on the title page.

Under the first body page’s level 1 heading on p. 3, titled General Operational Characteristics, summarize and paraphrase the scenario’s operational characteristics (items A–N above). Include a presentation of the TMDL information from the NPDES permit.

Under the second level 1 heading titled Potential Ecological Health Impacts, carefully consider then summarize all potential sources of ecological pollutants and their subsequent potential impacts derived from potential physical, chemical, and microbial contaminants within the operational effluents. Be sure to cite in APA Style as you write, using the CSU Citation Guide as your APA citations style guide.

Under the Abstract heading on p. 2 of the document, write a maximum of two sentences that reflect what you have addressed in the document for this particular unit (you will be adding to the abstract with a single sentence in all subsequent related unit assignments). Be sure to keep the abstract blocked (not indented) and double-spaced.

Under the References heading on the last page, update your references to include the source references that you used to inform your work in this section of your project. Be sure to use the CSU Citation Guide as your APA references style guide. It also provides guidance that will help you with APA-Style formatting.

Leave the rest of the template blank for this unit. You will complete each subsequent section (under each of the remaining level 1 headings) during each subsequent unit’s assignment.

You must use at least your textbook and at least one additional scholarly source (either a book or a scholarly journal article from the CSU Online Library databases) for each section of this document. Each of your sections’ content must be at least one full page in length, in Times New Roman 12-pt. font, double-spaced, with 1” margins.

Example Research Paper Using APA 7th edition



A Pollution Prevention Plan (P3) Pre-Assessment Study

[Student name here…remove brackets]

Columbia Southern University

ENV 4301: Pollution Prevention

[Instructor name here…remove brackets]

[Date here…remove brackets]


Block one full paragraph (no indenting the first line or any subsequent lines). Provide one full sentence here for each unit as you complete a level 1 heading section, describing what material or calculations were presented in that section. By the time the Unit VII material is complete, you will have six or seven sentences in this abstract (one for each unit, for Units II–VII).

Pollution Prevention Plan (P3) Pre-Assessment Study

General Operational Characteristics

Start typing here for Unit II in non-italicized font (despite the different font types and sizes allowed with APA 7th edition, please stay in Times New Roman 12-pt. font for this document, since this template is already in that font and size), citing with CSU APA Citation Guide p. 6 styled citations to defend what you state as fact.

Potential Ecological Health Impacts

Fill this in for Unit II. Remove each blank section before submittal in each unit.

Potential Human Health Impacts

Fill this in for Unit III.

Potential Societal Health Impacts

Fill this in for Unit IV.

Risk Assessment and Regulatory Requirements

Fill this in for Unit V.

Pollution Prevention Technologies

Fill this in for Unit VI.

Engineering Opportunities for Pollution Prevention

Fill this in for Unit VII.


Brusseau, M. L., Pepper, I. L., & Gerba, C. P. (2019). Environmental and pollution science (3rd ed.). Academic Press. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780128147207

List additional references here alphabetically (you may need to list some before the textbook reference). Be sure to double-space and use a hanging indent for each subsequent line in each reference entry, formatting according to CSU APA Citation Guide pp. 8–11.

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