There are two different tests for applying chi square distribution given in the textbook.  The two tests are chi-square goodness-of-fit tests and the chi-square test for independence. The two tests are used differently in the application of chi square distribution. 

Chi square, goodness of test fit, a parametric test, is used to determine how the value of a given phenomenon is significantly different from the expected value. The term goodness of test fit is used to compare observed sample distribution with expected probability distribution (Gravetter et al., 2018). The chi square goodness of test fit determines how a theoretical distribution such as Poisson or binomial fits well in the empirical distribution. Also, here, sample data are divided into intervals, and then a comparison is made between the numbers of points that fall into the interval and expected number of points in each interval. In a workplace, chi square goodness of test fit can be used to determine whether the ratio of male and female employees in a department match the overall action of male to female in the company. 

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

On the other hand, the chi-square test for independence is used when there are two categorical variables in a single population and the aim is to determine whether the two variables significantly associate. In the chi square test for independence, simple random sampling is the technique used, the variables are categorical, and the sample data is displayed in a contingency table (Gravetter, et al., 2018). The test has four steps which are stating the hypothesis, formulation of analysis plan, analysis of sample data, and interpretation of the results. For example, in a working place, employees can be classified by gender and their technical abilities. Here, chi square test for independence can be used to determine whether gender is related to technical abilities. In this case, technical abilities refer to ability to work in jobs that require technical skills.


Gravetter, F. J., Wallnau, L. B., & Forzano, L.-A. B. (2018). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Confidentiality Guarantee

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

24/7 Support

Our specialists are always online to help you! We are available 24/7 via live chat, WhatsApp, and phone to answer questions, correct mistakes, or just address your academic fears.

See our T&Cs
Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999EmailWhatsApp

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code ESSAYHELP