Standards for Installation of Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems

Fire is the largest cause of loss of property in the US. This have led to the formulation of building codes for fire protection systems also called fire suppression system or fire sprinkler system for multifamily and commercial building to save lives as well as reduce property damage. Madrzykowski and Fleming (2002) explains that fire sprinkler systems conserve water by extinguishing flames at onset, reduce demands on responders, diminish destruction, save lives, and immediately halt raging fire events. The NFPA 13D requires that each automatic sprinkler system should at least have one automatic water supply.

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) provides several standards to fall for the materials as well as the installation process. The required fire sprinkler system materials include: fittings, tubing and sprinklers.  According to National Fire Protection Association (2011), before constructing a fire sprinkler system, one have to ensure that the CPVC and PEX are permitted for the type of business. The NFPA 13D standards list the CPVC and PEX fitting systems and plastic pipes required to supply water to the fire sprinklers. Backflow preventers should be fixed in a standalone system where one-way valves are installed to prevent the back flow of stagnant water from polluting the portable water. 

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The NFPA requires that a stand-alone system be constructed for single family sprinkler systems. Madrzykowski and Fleming (2002) explain that a stand-alone system uses an independent water distribution system. NFPA requires a multi-purpose system to be linked to the cold-water plumbing system of the building. Using a multi-purpose system is beneficial as it reduces the cost of installation, as well as the number of fittings and installed pipes. The UL 1821 Standard for Safety provides a guideline for thermoplastic sprinkler pipe and fittings.


Madrzykowski, D. M., & Fleming, R. P. (2002). Review of residential sprinkler systems: research and standards (No. NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR)-).

National Fire Protection Association. (2011). NFPA 70: National electrical code. NationalFireProtectionAssoc.

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