Skin & Breast


This discussion contains 2 parts:

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  1. KM is a 38-year-old white woman with a 6-year history of psoriasis. Her family history includes allergies and asthma and her mother with psoriasis. KM returns today for an increase in symptoms, and she wants to improve the appearance of her skin. Please discuss the following:

    What is the underlying cause of psoriasis?
    What are the common signs and symptoms of this disease?

  2. Define, Compare and Contrast the following conditions:

    Fibrocystic breast disease
    Malignant breast tumor

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in proper current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. 

Post # 1

Diana Figueroa

St. Thomas University

Health Assessment & Promotion

Instructor Rafael Rojas

Due Date: 9/1/22


Patient Case Discussion

Understanding the pathogenesis of diseases plays an important role in clinical interventions. Knowledge of the causes, symptoms, and the complexities of disease conditions inform diagnosis, treatment and management of chronic conditions that impact individual and population health. This paper discusses two parts: the patient case on psoriasis and the nature and comparison of other selected conditions. The knowledge of disease pathogenesis influences diagnosis, treatment and management of serious disease conditions that impact health and wellbeing.

Part 1: Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the skin. Knowledge of pathogenesis of the disease has contributed to understanding of skin biology and clinical interventions. Research indicates that psoriasis is a hereditary disease that has origins in genetics and autoimmune pathogenic predispositions (Rendon and Knut 1475). Psoriasis vulgaris accounts for 90% of all psoriasis cases and covers a large area of the skin. The majority of people with psoriasis have hereditary predispositions of the skin disease. In the case of KM, the cause of her psoriasis is genetics. The fact that her mother has psoriasis explains her dermatologic manifestations of the chronic skin disease. Hence, the underlying cause of psoriasis is genetics and autoimmune traits such as allergies that affect the skin.

            Dermatologic manifestations of psoriasis appear as a plague on extended parts of the skin. While there are varied clinical classifications of the skin disease, 90% of cases appear as a scaly plague that can affect any part of the skin. Chronic psoriasis covers limbs, extensor surface of the skin, and scalp. The major signs and symptoms of psoriasis are scaly plaques that are destructive on the skin and cause chronic inflammation and irritation. The plagues may become hemorrhagic and cause skin discoloration, psoriatic nail, and psoriatic arthritis. Patients commonly show generalized or localized red patches or scaly skin manifestations that often progress to extended skin area and dermal appendages like nails, toes, fingers, palms, and feet (Rendon and Knut). Based on the clinical manifestations, the severity of psoriasis may differ across patients, from acute to chronic psoriasis.

Part 2: Define, Compare and Contrast Medical Conditions

Fibrocystic breast disease refers to the benign form of breast disease common in women across the world. The disease is common among women of reproductive age and is linked to reproductive hormones. Fibrocystic breast is characterized by non-malignant tumors, trauma, nipple discharge, or mastalgia and is often painful (Malherbe, Kahna, and Fatima). Lifestyle changes, medications, supportive bra, and hormone replacement therapy are common treatments of the symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease. Similarly, fibroadenoma refer to benign breast tumors that affect 25% of women aged 15-35 years. Unlike fibrocystic breast tumors that have epithelia-related calcifications, fibroadenoma has popcorn-like calcifications. Fibroadenoma tumors may comprise masses with calcifications or not (Stachs 33). On the contrary, malignant breast tumors are cancerous breast tumors that cause breast cancer. These tumors are highly invasive and difficult to treat once the cells spread to the breast stoma and other breast tissues (American Cancer Society). Unlike fibrocystic breast disease, malignant breast tumors are cancerous and are the leading cause of breast cancer.

Works Cited


American Cancer Society. “Types of Breast Cancer.” [Online, August 2022].

Malherbe, Kathryn, Myra Khan, and Saira, Fatima. Fibrocystic Breast Disease. [Updated 2021 Oct 24]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-.
 (Links to an external site.)

Rendon, Adriana, and Knut Schäkel. “Psoriasis Pathogenesis and Treatment.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 20,6 1475. 23 Mar. 2019, doi:10.3390/ijms20061475

Stachs, Angrit, Johannes Stubert, Toralf Reimer, and Steffi Hartmann. “Benign Breast Disease in Women.” Deutsches Arzteblatt international vol. 116,33-34 (2019): 565-574. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2019.0565

Post #2

Kerline Eugene

St. Thomas University


Professor Rafeal 

September 1, 2022

Underlying causes of psoriasis
Psoriasis is an immune system condition that leads to a faster skin regeneration rate than the normal regeneration rates. For instance, the plaque psoriasis results from a rapid cells turnover that leads to the production of patches and scales on the skin. This condition can be genetically inherited from a parent to a child (Robertson & Bowcock, 2010). For the case of KM, the most probable cause of psoriasis is an inheritance from the mother. Being a hereditary condition, having a mother with psoriasis increase her chances of having the same condition. Generally, other factors that lead to psoriasis are related to malfunction of the immune system. Some of the psoriasis triggers include environmental conditions such as extremely dry or cold weather conditions and other factors such as skin injuries, smoking, skin infections, stress, heavy alcohol consumption, and lithium medications.

Common signs and symptoms
The signs and symptoms of psoriasis vary on an individual basis. However, the common signs and symptoms include soreness, itching or burning of the skin, red skin patches covered with thick scales, stiff and swollen joints, cracked and dry skin that can possibly itch or bleed, thickened nails, and small spots of scales in children. The most commonly affected areas where the symptoms are evident include the legs, knees, face, scalp, palms, feet soles, elbows, and the lower back. In most cases, psoriasis goes through phases. For a couple of weeks or months, the disease will flare, it will then subside for another period, or go into remission unless it gets triggered again.

Fibrocystic breast disease
This refers to a lumpy and occasionally painful breast tissue common among women between the age of 20 to 50. The causes of fibrocystic breast disease are associated with breast changes and hormone imbalances. Since breast tissue responds to fluctuating estrogen levels, the tissue may become tender in response to the fluctuation, especially during the menstruation cycle (Malherbe K, 2020). The breast changes that can cause this disease include cysts formation, an overgrowth of cells lining the milk ducts, and an increase in the breast’s fibrous tissue. Fibrocystic breast disease has no association with breast cancer. It can be treated by administering over-the-counter medications, applying heat on the breasts, hormone therapy, among other methods.

This is a benign breast condition that often develops during puberty among women but is not limited to this age bracket. Men, on rare occasions, can also experience Fibroadenoma. It is always felt like a smooth, painless lump in the breast, easily moving under the skin, although Fibroadenoma is usually painless, there are rare occasions, especially before periods, when it can feel tender and painful. The condition’s cause is also associated with increased sensitivity to changes in estrogen levels. It is also not associated with breast cancer, and it can be treated through surgery and vacuum-assisted excision biopsy.

Malignant breast tumor
Unlike the other two breast conditions, malignant breast tumor is a cancerous tumor that grows from an accumulation of breast cancer cell. When cells begin growing out of control, they accumulate and form a tumor that can be felt as a lump or seen on an x-ray (Rouhi et al., 2015).

Malignant breast tumors can begin in different parts of the breast, including the milk ducts, milk glands, and rarely, in the breast tissue. When the cancer cells find their way into the bloodstream or the lymph system, cancer begins spreading to other parts of the body, which is once the cancer, has metastasized.


Malherbe K, F. S. (2020). 
Fibrocystic Breast Disease. NCBI. (Links to an external site.)


Roberson, E. D. O., & Bowcock, A. M. (2010). 
Psoriasis genetics: breaking the barrier. Trends in Genetics, 26(9), 415–423. (Links to an external site.)


Rouhi, R., Jafari, M., Kasaei, S., & Keshavarzian, P. (2015). Benign and malignant breast tumors classification based on region growing and CNN segmentation. 
Expert Systems with Applications, 42(3), 990–1002. 

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