Sanders HIS 1301 Unit 1 Assignment

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Sanders HIS 1301 Unit 1 Assignment
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

HIS 1301, American History I 1

  • Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I
  • Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

    1. Identify pre-Columbian American cultures with an emphasis on distinctive tribal attributes.
    1.1 Identify a tribal culture, event, or theory connected with Paleo-America.
    1.2 Express a view about a historical culture, event, or theory connected with Paleo-America.


    Learning Outcomes

  • Learning Activity
  • 1.1, 1.2

  • Unit Lesson
  • Chapter 1 (4 sections)
    Article: “Why Study History?”
    Video Segment: “Eva: The First American”
    Video Segment: “Southern Route to North America”
    Video Segment: “Clovis People”
    Video Segment: “Centuries Before Clovis People”
    Video Segment: “Coastal Route”
    Unit I Assignment

  • Required Unit Resources
  • In order to access the following resources, click the links below.

    Corbett, P. S., Janssen, V., Lund, J. M., Pfannestiel, T., Waskiewicz, S., & Vickery, P. (2014). U.S. history.


    Chapter 1: The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492, Sections Introduction—1.3

    Stearns, P. N. (1998). Why study history? American Historical Association.



    The transcripts for these videos can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the
    Films on Demand database.

    PBS (Producer). (2015). Eva: The first American (Segment 1 of 18) [Video]. In First peoples: Americas. Films

    on Demand.

    PBS (Producer). (2015). Southern route to North America (Segment 4 of 18) [Video]. In First peoples:

    Americas. Films on Demand.

    PBS (Producer). (2015). Clovis people (Segment 5 of 18) [Video]. In First peoples: Americas. Films on


    Pre-Columbian Americas

    HIS 1301, American History I 2


    PBS (Producer). (2015). Centuries before Clovis people (Segment 8 of 18) [Video]. In First peoples:
    Americas. Films on Demand.

    PBS (Producer). (2015). Coastal route (Segment 9 of 18) [Video]. In First peoples: Americas. Films on


    Unit Lesson

    Down the Rabbit Hole: Why Study History?

    History’s dead. It’s in the past. It doesn’t impact me, so why bother? Actually, scientists and historians
    continue to dive into the past and discover new evidence. For example, was the Beringia land bridge the only
    way that the first people migrated to the Americas? New evidence suggests no. Did a 22-year George
    Washington have a hand in starting the French and Indian War that will give way to the American
    Revolutionary War? New evidence suggests yes. As individuals, are we continually learning from our past,
    both personally and professionally? Would understanding histories and cultures bring forth the opportunity for
    community growth and unity?

    Most of us have heard the saying from philosopher George Santayana, “Those who cannot remember the
    past are condemned to repeat it.” That famous adage has justifiably stood the test of time, but, in practice,
    this only scratches the surface. History, like our contemporary society, is tremendously complex. It allows us
    to gain an understanding of past situations so that we may learn from the brilliancy and continue on certain
    pathways or have the fortitude and knowledge to make needed changes, so we dare not allow history to
    repeat itself.

    Unfortunately, many of us remember studying history from years past. Our teachers crammed the
    memorization of dates as the most important objective in the course. Boring! Rest assured that a mundane
    approach to history will not be our focus. While we will use the dates as our guideposts to situate events
    within time periods, our goal will be to immerse ourselves into the events, to understand who were the key
    players, what were they doing, where were they (what was the social, political, economic environment like),
    and most importantly why did the actions take place the way that they did and what impact did the events
    have on society? So, as you can see, we are digging past the surface of history and diving into the depths of
    history! This immersion into history through the analysis of historical events will be our focus, thus affording us
    the opportunity to see the brilliant connection of history in our lives.

    A True Collaboration: The Study of History and Information Literacy

    Throughout this course, you will have an opportunity to develop or enhance your information literacy skills by
    using past events as the basis for communication in an academic setting, applying cultural analysis using
    multiple academic methods, and honing the ability to evaluate the reliability of sources and information. The
    activities in this course will challenge you to embrace the settings and events of significance with a focus on
    discerning, analyzing, and learning how to interpret the world of the past using the methods of today.

    Information literacy is the ability to find and evaluate information to help make sound decisions in life, whether
    for academic, professional, or personal purposes.

    An individual who has information literacy skills is able to:

    • recognize what information and how much information is needed;
    • create an effective and efficient search strategy for the needed information;
    • analyze the retrieved information and evaluate its sources;
    • enhance one’s own understanding with the selected information;
    • use information effectively in order to achieve a desired outcome; and

    HIS 1301, American History I 3


    • use information ethically and legally, particularly with respect to recognizing intellectual property and
    acknowledging one’s sources.

    Information literacy skills are essential to the study of history. To develop information literacy skills as you
    conduct history research, follow the steps listed in the process below. This process is iterative, meaning that
    instead of moving through the steps sequentially, as in a checklist, you may repeat steps of the process as
    necessary in order to discover the best information to support your research goals.

    1. Identify the information you need. Read your assignment instructions carefully. Check to see if a
    specific topic or type of information is assigned.

    2. Find the best sources for the needed information. When searching for articles in the library, look for
    databases that match your research topic. For eBooks, the CSU Library’s eBook database may also
    be an option.

    3. Search your chosen resources for your information. Use keywords and phrases taken from your topic
    statement. Enclose phrases in quotation marks.

    4. Evaluate your retrieved information. Review your results to identify and select information that comes
    from a suitable and credible source, supports your writing purpose, and meets all criteria for your

    5. Use your information to successfully complete your assignment. Reinforce and build on your own
    statements with your chosen research information in order to create effective writing that achieves its
    intended goal. Identify all information sources used with complete APA Style citations.

    Information literacy skills will not only help you with your history research and other academic pursuits, but
    they will also transfer into the workplace and support career success. The Online Library provides you with
    resources to help you understand information literacy and develop your skills, and librarians are ready to
    assist you during each step of the research process. Reach out to your librarians for assistance today or visit
    the Online Library tutorials!

    HIS 1301, American History I 4


    Let the Journey Begin

    For our journey through American history, we will start with the earliest records and professional theories
    concerning Paleo-American civilization and continue through one of the most significant turning points in
    American culture and life—the American Civil War. So, let us begin our journey.

    The First Travelers to the Americas

    Our textbook, in section 1.1, begins with a very brief description of the Beringia migration theory that brought
    the first humans to the Americas. In addition to this theory being absolutely fascinating, there is so much more
    to the story and its impact. Plus, within the last 2 decades, researchers have unearthed new evidence that
    suggests that the land bridge was not the only way in which people first migrated to the Americas. So before
    diving into our textbook, let us take a further look the Beringia land bridge theory and the new theory that
    suggests that people also migrated by boat. The migrations will introduce us to the Clovis people, believed to
    have been the first people to the Americas, and what archeologists and historians are identifying as the pre-
    Clovis people (because new evidence suggests they were here about 1,000 years before the Clovis people).

    Let us begin with the Beringia land bridge theory. This popular hypothesis posits that the subarctic region to
    the west of modern Alaska, known today as the Bering Straits, was once a solid mass of land, thought to be
    about 600 miles wide, that connected the modern continents of Asia and North America until approximately
    14000 BCE. It is via this land mass, known as Beringia, that the first native tribes are thought to have
    migrated into the Americas, eventually spreading through the north, central, and southern regions. A point of
    clarification, evidence from sediment cores that included plant matter found in ash, suggested that they lived
    on the land bridge for years, perhaps generations. Consider that the Beringia land bridge was present for
    thousands of years. Archeologists, geologists, historians, and other scientists continue to investigate this

    HIS 1301, American History I 5


    Archeologist, geologists, and historians suggest that this is what the land mass of Beringia would have looked
    like (above). As a result of glaciers melting 9,000 years ago the land mass became submerged by water.
    Beringia. (n.d.). Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.
    ( )

    This theory of Beringia emerged in 1590 and is attributed to the work of a Jesuit missionary named José de
    Acosta (d. 1600). While Acosta’s scientific writings were among the most celebrated of his time, he was still
    subject to the social and political environments of his time. As a result, his is not the exclusive hypothesis
    explaining the migration to this new world; however, his theory did eventually draw an audience. Explorations
    by the Russian Empire led by Danish explorer Vitus Bering in 1724 and 1741 and a later expedition by
    Englishman James Cook in 1778 ignited the interest in human migration theories between Asia and North
    America. Today, the study of the Beringia Land Bridge theory continues, and as archeologists, geologist, and
    historians continue their research, additional theories of ancient migration, like the coastal routes, are
    emerging (National Parks Service, n.d.-a).

    Historians agree with the assumption that what motivated the first people in the Americas was the search for
    food and other basic necessities. In 2008, genetic testing suggested that a population did migrate across the
    Beringia Land Bridge as early as 30,000 years ago and had crossed into North America around 16,500 years
    ago, aligning with Acosta’s theory that the first migrants were in North America around 15000 BCE. That

    HIS 1301, American History I 6


    means that the population lived on the land bridge for about 10,000 years. Evidence also suggests that
    humans were living south of the Canadian ice sheet 15,000 years ago. Currently, available artifacts, including
    tools, weapons, vegetation, and cultural markings, help to further illustrate this migratory movement (National
    Parks Service, n.d.-b).

    Once the travelers had migrated below the Canadian ice sheet, they began to spread out throughout North,
    Central, and South America, all the while continuing to live a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. One example of an
    early Paleo-American, or ancient American, culture is the Clovis culture, believed to have arrived in North
    America 13,000 years ago. Known today as Clovis points (see image below), these points are believed to be
    a mainstay of the Clovis culture.

    Clovis points from the Rummells-Maske Site, 13CD15, Cedar County, Iowa. Courtesy of the Iowa Office of
    the State Archaeologist and Bill Whittaker
    (Whittaker, 2010)

    The points were discovered near the city of Clovis, New Mexico (hence the name Clovis) during the late
    1920s and gave clear evidence of human activity in North America. Recognized for its unique shape as a
    hunting tool and age (circa 10,000 to 9,000 BCE), the Clovis point could be considered the first American
    invention. Since the initial discovery in the late 1920s, more than 10,000 Clovis points have been discovered
    in approximately 1,500 locations across North America, reaching across the country from Florida to
    Washington State, up to Pennsylvania and down into Texas (Mann, 2013).

    Later discoveries found at the Monte Verde archaeological site in Chile advanced the migration theory of early
    Americans. Research conducted by a collective team of anthropologists, botanists, and anthropologists
    shows evidence that supports a theory that an early migration path along the Pacific Coast more than 14,000
    years ago. Nine different species of seaweed and marine algae were found in the firepits of the ancient
    settlements, confirming that the sites were occupied more than 1,000 years earlier than previously known
    human settlements throughout the American continents.

    Discovered in 1976, the Monte Verde site is a well preserved settlement that contained dozens of huts that
    housed 20 to 30 people along a creek. Radiocarbon dating performed in 1979 determined the age of bones
    and charcoal found at the site to be more than 14,000 years before the present. This discovery caused
    controversy through the social sciences community, as the leading migration theory of the time posited that
    human colonization in the Americas began about 13,000 years ago, when the last Ice Age had ended and the
    later-named Clovis people had followed large animals across Beringia in search of food and eventually
    spread across the Americas. In 1997, the controversy was put to rest after a group of archaeologists visited
    Monte Verde, reviewed the data, and unanimously affirmed the age of the artifacts (Salisbury, 2008).

    Today, due to the empirical evidence, both theories, the land bridge migration and the coastal migration are
    widely accepted by scientists. More and more discoveries are being made, which helps us all to learn more
    about the first peoples of America and their amazing cultures, and perhaps even find a connection to us
    today. For the coastal migration theory, evidentiary support can prove to be a challenge. Going beyond the
    obvious issues of thousands of years of sedimentary change and human development, the sea levels at the
    time of the migration were about 200 feet lower than they are today. The early coastal developments are now
    covered by the Pacific Ocean and various rivers and tributaries (Salisbury, 2008). The land bridge migration
    theory faces similar challenges with sedimentary change and human development, but, as of September
    2021, scientists have identified fossilized footprints that are from around 23,000 years ago. Discovered in a
    dry lakebed in New Mexico, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey analyzed seeds that were trapped in
    the footprints. These footprints are now identified as the human footprints in North America. This discovery

    HIS 1301, American History I 7


    will continue to help social scientists offer more answers to the question of when the first people arrived at the
    Americas (Larson, 2021).

    Pre-European Colonization: Tribal Nations and Settlements

    With the discovery of agriculture and the use of pottery to preserve and store excess materials and food (circa
    4000 BCE), the hunter-gatherer lifestyle of the Clovis began to transition to semi-permanent settlements and
    population centers. This tremendous evolution in turn brought about the advent of semi-permanent political,
    religious, and trade-influenced organizations of numerous families—what we now recognize as a tribe. Tribes
    would spread and appear throughout the Americas after 4000 BCE. Even with common ancestry, tribal
    cultures would adapt to the climate and resources available. Over time, this led to wide differences among
    tribes in religion, government, and social roles, specifically when looking in the North American Southwest,
    South, and Northeast. As complex and durable as these tribal societies had become, shortly before 1500 AD,
    their world was changed by European exploration.

    Native American cultural maps show clearly distinguished cultural and tribal regions, some of which relied on
    each other for support in harsh climates, while others feuded over land and supplies (see image below).
    Assuming the accuracy of two of the most common migration patterns, Beringia and similar boat-driven
    expeditions farther south, it is understandable why some of the oldest remains are found in what is now the
    American Southwest, the Great Plains, and along the Pacific coast in South America.

    Map showing the cultural regions of Native Americans

    (Spacenut525, 2010)

    In the American Northwest, what was commonly seen in the pre-colonization period was a wide array of
    hunter-gatherer and craftsmen-led tribes, like the Haida, Ute, Shoshone, and Nez Perce tribes. Seen within
    this area was a land of many metals, almost unending resources, and great offerings from the rivers, lakes,
    and ocean, including fish and whale oil. However, as is true with any abundance, once word of such great
    promise was known, the tribal nations were not alone. As colonization and statehood erupted in the American
    East, the American West drew wide attention from people willing to brave the wild to secure their share of the

    HIS 1301, American History I 8


    Totem poles were often carved to honor a family’s history or an important individual within the tribal nation.

    (Judson, 1917)

    The American Southwest was the site of some of the oldest native markings and permanent settlements. In
    addition to the Clovis culture, tribal nations like the Pueblo, Navajo, and Hopi settled this land and boasted
    vibrant cultures with great reverence to the sky and sun. Compared to their northern and eastern neighbors,
    however, they were also wary of close neighbors because of the need for wide areas to hunt and limited
    natural resources. This region continues to be one of great permanence. Established in the 12th century,
    Acoma Pueblo is believed to be the oldest continually occupied city in what is now the United States.
    Identified now as a National Historic Landmark, Acoma Pueblo is located about 60 miles outside of present-
    day Albuquerque, New Mexico (National Parks Service, n.d.-a.). Tribes in this region were heavily influenced
    by the Spanish and tribal aggression and discovery, which are topics that will be revisited in later units.

    Sky City of Acoma Pueblo known as the Enchanted Mesa

    (Beyond My Ken, 2012)

    In the American Northeast, including what is now parts of Canada and the United States, there was a range of
    settlements, but two major cultures emerged: the Algonkian (Algonquian) and the Iroquois in the Northeast.
    As can be seen in the map above, the Algonquian settlements dominated much of the coastal regions that
    saw the first English settlements. The Iroquois lands quickly became disputed territory between the settlers
    looking for lands to extend and the ancient tribes working to retain their culture.

    Though impossible to say everything here, some common aspects of these northeastern tribes were their
    hunting and fishing prowess as well as their sometimes-hostile reaction to outsiders, especially surrounding
    land claims because of their farming needs to survive in the unforgiving climate. There is clear evidence that
    this culture descended from the Clovis tribes, as can be seen in their weapons and tools, but these tribes
    were also prosperous farmers of gourds, beans, corn, and even tobacco. Because of the agriculture, these
    tribes were not generally nomadic, meaning that their shelter was often sturdy enough for the harsh realities
    of the climate and that any moves followed the need for agriculture.

    Finally, the American South proved to be another lush and highly prized region for its abundant natural
    resources and soil. The tribes of this region, like those in the Pacific Northwest, thrived on hunting and
    gathering, and the climate did not require as much preparation for devastating seasons. Unlike the Pacific

    HIS 1301, American History I 9


    Northwest, however, these offerings were quickly be coveted by European explorers. The Native Americans,
    including the Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee/Creek, Chickasaw, and Seminole, faced one of the most
    devastating removals in American history during the early 1800s.

    Known as the Five Civilized Tribes, the tribal nations’ leaders of the Southern tribal nations. Sequoyah
    (Cherokee); Pushmataha (Choctaw); Selecta (Muscogee/Creek); a traditional Chickasaw warrior; Osceola
    (Seminole). Portraits drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850.
    (Rob, 2008)

    It is important to note that many of the tribal nations noted in the section Pre-European Colonization: Tribal
    Nations and Settlements continued after European exploration and colonization took place and continue to
    this day. Many of the tribal nations probably sound very familiar to you, and some of you may have a direct
    ancestral lineage. It would be wonderful to hear a story of your tribal nation, if you would like to share it!

    A Closing Note

    We are just getting started with Unit I. Our focus in the Unit I Study Guide was to work in concert with the
    information from our textbook. Since our textbook authors began their real focus on what they are calling the
    first Americans, we wanted to take a few major leaps back and establish a foundation of how the first
    Americans got here and who the first Americans really were, because they were here long before the Olmec,
    and their stories are amazing!

    Now that you have finished reading Unit I Study Guide, it is time to head over to our textbook, OpenStax, and
    begin reading Chapter 1. Our complete Unit I will focus not just on Paleo-America and the pre-European tribal
    nations, but what was taking place throughout Europe and Africa prior to Columbus’s fateful trip across the
    Atlantic Ocean in 1492. What is happening throughout Europe and Africa will help us to understand some of
    the forthcoming actions and decisions.

    As we move forward, it is important to remember that with much of historical study, especially with records
    and accounts as timeworn as these, differences in, and even arguments concerning interpretation are not
    rare; in fact, they are encouraged. The study of history is a living discipline, and for that reason, it is important
    to consider multiple perspectives, including your own interpretation, when reviewing for and preparing your

    HIS 1301, American History I 10


    assignments. Please be willing to challenge yourself to consider multiple views, perspectives, and points of
    view and to find the amazing connection of history to your world today.


    Beringia [Demographic map]. (n.d.). The University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.

    Beyond My Ken. (2012, November 17). Acoma Pueblo Enchanted Mesa [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.

    Judson, K. B. (1917). Myths and legends of British North America—Haida totem poles [Image]. Wikimedia


    Larson, C. (2021, September 23). Oldest human footprints in North American found in New Mexico. AP News.

    Mann, C. C. (2013, November). The Clovis point and the discovery of America’s first culture. Smithsonian


    National Parks Service. (n.d.-a). Acoma Pueblo, Acoma, New Mexico. U.S. Department of the Interior.

    National Parks Service. (n.d.-b). History of the Bering land bridge theory. U.S. Department of the Interior.

    Rob. (2008, April 29). Five–civilized–tribes–portraits [Image]. Wikimedia Commons.

    Salisbury, D. F. (2008, May 8). New evidence from earliest known human settlement in the Americas supports

    coastal migration theory. Vanderbilt University.

    Spacenut525. (2010, July 1). Native American regions [Map]. Wikimedia Commons

    Whittaker, B. (2010, April 9). Clovis Rummells Maske [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.

  • Suggested Unit Resources
  • In order to access the following resources, click the links below.

    The transcripts for these videos can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the
    Films on Demand database.

    What route did our ancient ancestors use in their early migrations from Africa to the Middle East? Watch this
    video to learn more.

    PBS (Producer). (2016). Out of Africa (Segment 6 of 14) [Video]. In Great human odyssey. Films on Demand.

    HIS 1301, American History I 11


    Watch the following video to learn more about how we, as Homo sapiens, are united by our past, our present,
    and our future.

    PBS (Producer). (2016). Rise of Homo sapiens (Segment 2 of 14) [Video]. In Great human odyssey. Films on


    Discover how witnessing the strategies of communities like the Saan in Southern Africa’s Kalahari Desert help
    anthropologists understand the evolution of the early hunter gathers.

    PBS (Producer). (2016). Strategies of early hunters (Segment 3 of 14) [Video]. In Great human odyssey.

    Films on Demand.

    Continuing the story of the Skhul Cave skill, could a tooth hold a key to a mystery connecting the Skhul Cave
    people to Africa and thus the ancestors to the people of the world? Watch the video to learn more.

    PBS (Producer). (2016). Skhul cave ancestors (Segment 7 of 14) [Video]. In Great human odyssey. Films on


    Is it possible that the first Americans crossed the Atlantic Ocean rather than the Pacific Ocean? Watch the
    video to learn more.

    PBS (Producer) (2016). America’s first people (Segment 10 of 14) [Video]. In Great human odyssey. Films on


      Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I

      Learning Activity

      Required Unit Resources

      Unit Lesson

      Down the Rabbit Hole: Why Study History?

      A True Collaboration: The Study of History and Information Literacy

      Let the Journey Begin

      The First Travelers to the Americas

      Pre-European Colonization: Tribal Nations and Settlements

      A Closing Note


      Suggested Unit Resources


    In Unit I, you became familiar (or more familiar) with some of the unique and amazing cultures of Paleo-America (a.k.a. ancient America). As we learned, researchers, including archeologists, historians, geologists, and others, are continuing to discover new and exciting information about the Paleo-American cultures.


    Assignment Instructions

    After reading the Unit I Lesson, Section 1.1 (The Americas) from the online textbook and viewing the Required Videos, select either one tribal culture, an event, or a theory discussed that relates to Paleo-America. Once you have selected a topic, go to the CSU Online Library and locate a peer-reviewed, full-text article that focuses on your topic. Select an article that you are confident that you will be able to use to write a reflection.

    Your assignment will consist of at least one page of content that will include the following: 


    · zA discussion of the content of the article you selected.

    · The article’s thesis and a summary of the thesis’ main points.

    · Insightful personal viewpoints on the success (or lack thereof) of the article and its findings. (Personal opinions should be given and supported with information from the article.)

    · In-text citations and a reference for the article. Adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment.

    Review these three suggested strategies to successfully accomplish the Unit I Assignment. 

    · Getting Started: Do not begin to work on the assignment until you have read (in full) the Unit I Study Guide and read or viewed the assigned Required Unit Resources. After you have read or viewed all the Unit I material, carefully review the assignment rubric so that you are aware of how your assignment will be evaluated. Take time to preview the online Library, the Writing Center, and APA resources provided. Reach out to your instructor if you have any questions. 

    · The Library: The following are recommended electronic databases to use for this assignment: America: History and Life; JSTOR; and Academic Search Ultimate. Be sure to select an article that interests you and is understandable. Peer-reviewed articles may include a lot of scientific data and sometimes appear very complex. Be sure to read an article thoroughly, prior to making your selection. If it is boring to you, pick a different article. If it is confusing to you, pick a different article. Reach out to the librarians if you have questions about the library. 

    · Think about the content: To help you present strong content, use the 5 Ws: who, what, where, when, why. The 5 Ws are all needed for your major components and for this academic level. The why in this assignment is a vital component. Organization of content is important. Content can be strong, but if the organizational structure of your paper is weak, the content can be negatively impacted. Remember to include a clear introduction with a thesis statement, an organized body with supporting evidence, and a conclusion. Use five rounds of proofreading and editing your assignment prior to submission. Give yourself time between each round. This will allow you to see new errors and fix them prior to submission. This is one of the best strategies for writing assignments: five rounds of proofreading and editing. Reach out to the Writing Center staff if you have questions about APA Style or want a second set of eyes on your work. Contact your instructor with any questions you may have. 

    The following are additional resources that you may find helpful for this assignment. 

    Calculate the price of your order

    550 words
    We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
    Total price:
    The price is based on these factors:
    Academic level
    Number of pages
    Basic features
    • Free title page and bibliography
    • Unlimited revisions
    • Plagiarism-free guarantee
    • Money-back guarantee
    • 24/7 support
    On-demand options
    • Writer’s samples
    • Part-by-part delivery
    • Overnight delivery
    • Copies of used sources
    • Expert Proofreading
    Paper format
    • 275 words per page
    • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
    • Double line spacing
    • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

    Our guarantees

    Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
    That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

    Money-back guarantee

    You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

    Read more

    Zero-plagiarism guarantee

    Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

    Read more

    Free-revision policy

    Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

    Read more

    Confidentiality Guarantee

    Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

    Read more

    Fair-cooperation guarantee

    By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

    Read more

    24/7 Support

    Our specialists are always online to help you! We are available 24/7 via live chat, WhatsApp, and phone to answer questions, correct mistakes, or just address your academic fears.

    See our T&Cs
    Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999EmailWhatsApp

    Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code ESSAYHELP