Please reflect on what you have learn during the last 15 weeks throughout this course and Please RESUME that information in 1 PAGE, with 2 scholarly references.


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Using Spirituality in Nursing Practice

Name: Oscar Ruiz



Date: 6/21/2022


In the nursing practice, the aspect of spirituality entails elements such as having high power, living a purposeful and meaningful life, feelings of being content and having essential relationships as well as transcendence. Despite that it touches religious aspects to a little extent, it does not necessarily mean religious inclusion in nursing care. The reason is that an individual, i.e., a patient in this case might be spiritual without having to be a member of a given religion and the above elements comes into play in this case. Therefore, in this discussion, the aspect of spirituality in nursing practice will be examined as well as the tools for evaluating spirituality. The most important thing is that this aspect will be done in relation to a nursing theory representing today’s professional nursing practice as a learning outcome. The evaluation will be addressed by looking at the prevailing information and then picking out the valuable information.

Utilization of spirituality in the nursing practice

According to Harrad Rachel et. al., in 2019, the utilization of spirituality in nursing practice forms a vital portion of the role that a nurse has to play and may also be regarded as spiritual well-being which has essential implications for a patient’s well-being and health. As such, the spiritual needs of a patient have to be acknowledged as a vital portion of the nursing assessment and care and due to this case, it determines the outcome of the concerned patient. Also, internationally, there exists a growing emphasis on the importance that meeting the spiritual needs of the patient has on the outcome of the patients. As an example, it has aided in enhancing tolerance to physical and emotional demands of the patients, decreasing pain and stress and also deal with negative emotions, and lowering depression and instances of suicide. Using spirituality in nursing also leads to increased satisfaction on the side of the patients. The utilization of spirituality in nursing is also consistent with the role that nurses have to play as a multifaceted one, incorporating physical and psychological as well as social requirements of a patient and also focusing on holistic care.

Tools used in evaluating spirituality

Various tools exist for evaluating spirituality and among them is the Spirituality and Spiritual Maintenance Rating Gauge. It is a device that has been established for assessing the patient’s and nurse’s values and beliefs regarding spirituality as well as spiritual care. The other essential tools include the HOPE questions as well as the Open Invite which are all used for offering efficient ways of eliciting thoughts of the patients concerning the application of spirituality in nursing practice.

The nursing theory represents the current professional practice in nursing

In relation to the utilization of spirituality in nursing practices, a certain nursing theory exists that represents today’s professional practice within the nursing field. The specific nursing theory is that of the patient-centered care or approach to nursing. In this theory, patients are treated by receiving healthcare not only with respect but also with dignity, (Ortiz, 2021). The patients are also involved in the process of making decisions concerning their health. The theory also relates to spirituality in nursing in that the spiritual needs of the patient being catered to will be considered.


Nursing practice is a broad concept and involves a variety of aspects and one of them which relates to this discussion is that of the using spirituality. As discussed above, it is a broad concept just like the other concepts such as Electronic Health Records among others. Just like the other concepts, spirituality in nursing has notable benefits especially increasing the satisfaction of the patients and ensuring there is a better outcome for the patients. Also, the current practices in the nursing profession relate to or are in line with this aspect of using spirituality in the nursing practice.


Harrad Rachel, Cosentino Chiara, Keasley Robert and Sulla Francesco. (2019). Spiritual care in nursing: an overview of the measures used to assess spiritual care provision and related factors amongst the nurses.Acta Biomed, 2019; 90(4): 44-55.

Doi: 10.23750/abm.v90i4-S.8300

Ortiz, M. R. (2021). Best Practices in Patient-Centered Care: Nursing Theory Reflections. Nursing Science Quarterly, 34(3), 322-327.

Effectiveness of Professional Social Support Versus Personal and Social Network-provided Social Support


Student Name: Oscar Diaz



Date: June 25, 2022

Effectiveness of Professional Social Support Versus Personal and Social Network-provided Social Support

Social support theory is a middle range nursing model which focuses on explaining how varied social relationships contribute to health and overall well-being of an individual. The theorist illustrates how instrumental, emotional, and information support impact one’s health behavior, utilization of health services, and overall health status. Emotional social support incorporates expression of caring, empathy, love, and trust towards the patient and families affected. Instrumental social support, on the other hand, incorporates services offered and tangible aid a patient receives from varied social support providers. Additionally, informational support includes the knowledge, suggestions, and advice an individual receives in relation to their health needs. Social support can be offered by professionals such as nurses and physicians or social networks consisting of friends, neighbors, relatives, and all other individuals who can assist patients and affected families to enhance their overall well-being (Suwinyattichaiporn & Johnson, 2022). In my personal view, social support offered by professionals such as nurses to parents of children suffering from chronic mental health is more effective compared to support offered by social networks.

The primary role of nurse practitioners is to provide holistic care to patients and their while seeking to offer emotional, instrumental, and informational support with an enhancing their participation in achieving optimum health and well-being. Professional nurses are equipped with knowledge and skills necessary for them to acknowledge the needs of parents with children suffering from chronic mental illness. Proper acknowledgement of the needs is essential to giving relevant empathetic emotional and verbal feedback to patients and affected families while showing love and respect. Emotional social support from professional nurses establishes trust between parents and nurses, which is an essential ingredient to provision of optimal instrumental caring services (Donovan & Greenwell, 2021). Aside from emotional support, professional training of nurses puts them in a better position to offer instrumental social support to parents and children living with chronic mental illness. Instrumental social support incorporates the tangible aid and services affected individuals receives. This could be psychotherapeutic interventions, which are only offered by professionals. Professional nurses can also effectively and efficiently offer informational social support. This ranges from advice, suggestion, and health education information concerning patient needs to aid parents of children with chronic mental illness make informed decisions to enhance patient health (Donovan & Greenwell, 2021).

While the nurse-provided social support would be more effective for parents of children with chronic illness, enhancing the social support provided by personal relationships and social networks for parents can be fundamental in achieving the overall well-being of the affected individuals. For instance, personal relationships characterized by trust, love, and empathy offer emotional support for individuals involved in the relationship, which is crucial to enhancing psychosocial well-being for the parents with children affected with mental illness. Similarly, social network support can influence an individual’s understanding of mental illness which is crucial to enhancing behavioral modifications to achieve well-being and optimum health. Besides, individuals who have a wide chain of supporters surrounding them are bound to receiving significant physical aid in terms of performing routine activities that sustains optimal lifestyle and emotional support to reduce overall stress surrounding the family in due to loneliness (Laird et al., 2018).

In more fundamental terms, optimal lifestyle and well-being of children living with chronic mental health illness and their families can be enhanced by efficient nurse-provided social support as well as social support provided by personal relationships and social networks. Considering the position and role of nurses in the well-being of the general population, nurse-led social support is more effective in enhancing well-being of children and parents affected with chronic mental illness. However, individual relationship and social network provided support has huge contribution to achieve optimal behavioral, psychosocial, and physiological well-being of the affected individuals.


Donovan, E. E., & Greenwell, M. R. (2021). Social Support in Nursing: A Review of the Literature. Nursing Communication, 1(1), 2. Available from

Laird, Y., Fawkner, S., & Niven, A. (2018). A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being, 13(1), 1435099. doi/full/10.1080/17482631.2018.1435099

Suwinyattichaiporn, T., & Johnson, Z. D. (2022). The impact of family and friends social support on Latino/a first-generation college students’ perceived stress, depression, and social isolation. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 21(3), 297-314.

Behaviors to promote health attachment


Name of Professor:

Institutional Affiliation:

Date: July 20,2022

Behaviors to promote health attachment

The theory of attachment is a psychological theory that attempts to describe the nature of the emotional bond that develops between an infant and the primary caregiver

The nurse would start by trying to establish a trusting relationship with the parent. She would then work to promote positive interactions between the parent and child. This would involve encouraging the parent to respond to the child’s cues, providing support and guidance when needed, and helping the parent to understand the child’s developmental needs. The nurse would also encourage the parent to provide structure and consistency for the child (Cooke et al., 2019).

There are a few key behaviors that a nurse can attempt to stimulate when working with a parent to promote a healthy attachment. One is helping the parent to feel secure in their relationship with their child. This can be done by promoting positive interactions and providing support and encouragement.

Another is helping the parent to feel competent in their ability to care for their child. This can be done by providing information and resources, and by helping the parent to understand their child’s development and needs. Finally, it is important to help the parent feel connected to their child. This can be done by promoting bonding and attachment activities, and by helping the parent to understand their child’s emotions and needs.

Some of the main behaviors that a nurse may try to stimulate when working with a parent to promote health attachment include;

Sensitivity- Sensitivity is the ability to respond to the needs of an infant. it is thought that sensitive caregivers are more attuned to the needs of their infants, and as a result, the infants develop a stronger bond with their parents. Nurses promote sensitivity by creating a safe and supportive environment for the children and parent bonding.

Proximity seeking is the desire to be close to the attachment figure. This can be seen when the infant cries when the parent leaves and is happy when the parent returns. The nurse can promote this behavior by encouraging the parent to spend time with the infant, providing opportunities for skin-to-skin contact, and helping the parent to understand the infant’s cues (Slade et al., 2020).

A safe and secure base is the understanding that the attachment figure is a source of safety and security. The nurse can promote this behavior by helping the parent to create a safe and secure environment for the infant, teaching the parent how to respond to the infant’s cues, and encouraging the parent to be attuned to the infant’s needs.

Separation anxiety is the anxiety that is experienced when the attachment figure is away. This can be seen when the infant cries when the parent leaves and is happy when the parent returns. The nurse can promote this behavior by helping the parent to understand the infant’s cues, teaching the parent how to respond to the infant’s needs, and encouraging the caregiver to be frequently around the infant and pay attention to the slightest signs.


Cooke, J. E., Kochendorfer, L. B., Stuart-Parrigon, K. L., Koehn, A. J., & Kerns, K. A. (2019). Parent-child attachment and children’s experience and regulation of emotion: A meta-analytic review. Emotion, 19(6), 1103.

Slade, A., Holland, M. L., Ordway, M. R., Carlson, E. A., Jeon, S., Close, N., … & Sadler, L. S. (2020). Minding the Baby®: Enhancing parental reflective functioning and infant attachment in an attachment-based, interdisciplinary home visiting program. Development and Psychopathology, 32(1), 123-137.

Comfort Contract

Name: Oscar




Date: July 27, 2022

Comfort Contract

A “comfort contract” is an agreement between a patient and a healthcare provider that outlines the expectations for the patient’s comfort during their hospital stay. The contract should specify the overall level of comfort the patient is expecting and any chronic discomforts or interventions that the patient uses at home for relief (Spassiani et al., 2020, p. 50). A comfort contract can help to ensure that these expectations are met and can help to improve the overall experience for the Patient. The contract should be signed by the patient or their surrogate and the nurse or care team member who will be responsible for their care. This will ensure that all parties are aware of the expectations and understand their roles in providing comfort to the Patient.

This contract is between the patient and the nurse or care team.

The Patient agrees to:

Provide the nurse or care team with a list of chronic discomforts and interventions that are used at home for relief.

The Patient agrees to provide the nurse or care team with a list of any chronic discomforts they have at home and what interventions they use for relief. This will help the nurse or care team to be aware of these and provide similar interventions if needed (Spassiani et al., 2020, p. 47).

Communicate any changes in comfort levels to the Nurse or Care Team

This will help the nurse or care team be aware of any changes and adjust the care plan accordingly (Afriyie, 2020, p. 441).

Cooperate with the interventions prescribed by the Nurse or Care Team

This will help to ensure that the interventions are effective and that the patient is comfortable.

The Nurse or Care Team agrees to:

Review the patient’s list of chronic discomforts and interventions that are used at home for relief.

This will help the Nurse or Care Team to be aware of these and provide similar interventions if needed (Spassiani et al., 2020, p. 48).

Develop a plan of care to address the patient’s comfort needs

This will help to ensure that the Patient’s needs are met and that they are comfortable.

Communicate the plan of care to the patient

This will help the patient understand the plan and know what to expect (Afriyie, 2020, p. 439).

Regularly monitor the patient’s comfort levels and adjust the plan of care as needed.

This will help to ensure that the patient’s needs are being met and that they are comfortable.

Update the patient on the status of the plan of care

This will help the patient be aware of the plan’s progress and any changes that have been made (Spassiani et al., 2020, p. 52).

The patient and the nurse or care team agree to review and update this contract as needed.

Date: ________________________

Patient Signature: ________________________

Nurse or Care Team Signature: ________________________


Afriyie, D. (2020). Effective communication between nurses and patients: an evolutionary concept analysis. British Journal of Community Nursing, 25(9), 438-445.

Spassiani, N. A., Abou Chacra, M. S., Selick, A., Durbin, J., & Lunsky, Y. (2020). Emergency department nurses’ knowledge, skills, and comfort in caring for patients with intellectual disabilities. International Emergency Nursing, 50, 100851. 47-55.

Surrogate Role

Name: Oscar Diaz




I agree that the surrogate role defined by Peplau is relevant to the nursing practice as currently experienced because the primary purpose of the nurse-client relationship in nursing is to offer effective nursing care that can lead to health promotion and maintenance. Peplau maintains that nurses should adopt specific helping roles in providing care (Wasaya et al., 2021). These roles include the surrogate, resource person, stranger, leader, teacher, and counselor roles. In the surrogate role, nurses are required to function as advocates or a substitute for other human beings closely related to the client. Some of the persons who might be closely related to the client include their parents, siblings, other relatives, friends, or even their teacher. Nurses are required to effectively perform the surrogate role because clients might unconsciously transfer their behaviors or emotions connected to a significant other onto the nurse (Forchuk, 2021). Nurses can deal with such situations by addressing the client’s reaction and helping them acknowledge the differences and similarities between themselves and others. 

In the surrogate role, nurses should also assist patients in clarifying the different domains of interdependence, dependence, and as well independence. Some of the ways that nurses can promote independence among patients include providing helpful information, using motivational interviewing, and emphasizing partnership. In Today’s date, it is essential for health care providers and other nursing staff to work closely with patients to develop a better care plan and lower risk factors. Explaining all the benefits of partnership can significantly assist clients in becoming more comfortable in seeking health care services, thus resulting in improved relationships with providers, fewer hospitalizations, better outcomes and improved satisfaction with medical treatment (Suhariyanto et al., 2018). Motivational interviewing can also empower clients to make changes that can improve their health since they are asked several open-ended questions that let them express their fears and concerns about health. Motivational interviewing also presents other benefits, including encouraging clients to envision a future free of substance abuse or mental health challenges and helping patients take responsibility for themselves and their actions. Other advantages of motivational interviewing include building the confidence of clients and trust in themselves and preparing clients to become more receptive to treatment. It is a great aide to other therapeutic styles and substance use treatments besides being beneficial to patients who were previously resistant to starting a treatment program or those who are not ready to make the necessary changes in life. 


Forchuk, C. (2021). Overview of Peplau’s Theory. In From Therapeutic Relationships to Transitional Care (pp. 3-15). Routledge.

Suhariyanto, Hariyati, Rr. T. S., & Ungsianik, T. (2018). Improving the interpersonal competencies of head nurses through Peplau’s theoretical active learning approach. Enfermería Clínica, 28, 149–153.

Wasaya, F., Shah, Q., Shaheen, A., & Carroll, K. (2021). Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations: A Case Study. Nursing Science Quarterly, 34(4), 368–371.

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