Psychology of Adjustment

Written Assignment for Unit 1

Question 3: Concrete example of age-related changes, midlife transition, ageism, and life review 

As people grow older, they experience many physical and mental changes that affect their functioning in society. Initially, many people attain the mid-life crisis between the ages of 45 and 64 and experience a psychological crisis due to life events that highlight their advancing age, shortcomings in accomplishments, and inevitable mortality. For instance, they have a longing for youthfulness and feel remorseful for the goals they have not attained (Kirsh, 2014). Moreover, as people advance in age, they begin to suffer from physical and mental ailments that are linked to their advanced age. For instance, the grey matter declines in older people and they lose certain cognitive functioning such as bas coordination and memory. Moreover, older people are also marginalized from society since they are economically dependent on their families, as most of their peers have succumbed to the effects of old age. 

Written Assignment for Unit 2

Question 1: Concept of helplessness, how it develops and how people who have learned to be helpless differ from those who are not 

Helplessness is a behavior, which people develop after they experience situations where they are exposed to painful events that they cannot avoid or escape. Helplessness occurs after an individual faces adverse stimuli over time and he/she gives up since the person feels they have lost control of the situation (Kirsh, 2014). Psychologists feel that many people who suffer from mental illnesses such as clinical depression, do so after succumbing to helplessness. However, people who have not embraced helplessness still feel that they are in control over their lives and they, therefore, take conscious steps to address the challenges they are facing. Such people develop a positive attitude even when facing major life challenges since they have the self-confidence in their ability to overcome the obstacles and change their lives for the better. 

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Written Assignment for Unit 3

Question 2: List and describe five reasons workers suffer from low job satisfaction

  • Working conditions and environment: People who work in stressful environments such as in emergency care or technical fields may experience low job satisfaction since the nature of their job exposes them to fatigue and psychological stress.  
  • Rewards and incentives: When employees are not adequately compensated, they feel that the employer is taking advantage of them, and this may lead to low morale and motivation and consequently low job satisfaction.
  • Satisfying and interesting work: People who work in interesting professions that allow employee autonomy helps them develop creative solutions to their problems, thereby enhancing the quality of their work. People who work in less interesting jobs lack this autonomy and creativity, and they may experience low job satisfaction. 
  • Company culture: The organizational culture affects employee satisfaction levels and people who work in an environment where they share similar values and attributes with their co-workers and supervisors, will be more satisfied with their jobs and vice versa.
  • Growth opportunities: Most people want to work in an organization where they can grow and advance their careers so that they ultimately attain their professional and personal goals. Those who work in organizations with little or no growth potential will likely experience job dissatisfaction. 

Written Assignment for Unit 4

Question 1: What are defense mechanisms, the advantages, and disadvantages of using them to cope with stress and examples of three of them. 

Defense mechanisms are psychological tactics that people subconsciously use to protect themselves from anxieties when they face unacceptable feelings or thoughts. Some of the common defense mechanisms include denial, projection, repression, regression, sublimation, and displacement (Schacter, 2011).  There are several benefits and weaknesses associated with using defense mechanisms when dealing with stressful experiences. The first advantage is that people are able to cope with stressful situations without harming themselves. Another benefit is that it allows people to postpone dealing with stressful events until they are ready to face their situations. However, one disadvantage of using defense mechanisms is that it does not address the issues facing the person and he/she, therefore, continues to hurt and cannot attain healing. Moreover, defense mechanisms suppress the stressful feelings that one is experiencing and this may manifest itself in harmful actions or behavior in the future if the person does not deal with the situation they are facing in life. 


Kirsh, S. J. (2014). Text: Psychology for living: Adjustment, Growth, and Behavior Today

11th Edition. Pearson. 

Schacter, D. L. (2011). Psychology Second Edition. New York: Worth Publishers

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