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methodology you decided upon to test that hypothesis
, the
analyses you’d propose to run
, and the
preliminary discussion points you’d want to cover
must all being included.



Aggression in Children: Rough Draft of Final Paper

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Instructor Keith Burton

July 14, 2022


The research aimed to examine the educational effect of children ages 5-8 aggressiveness. Hostile behaviors include those aimed at causing harm. They hurt others and are a nuisance to many individuals. The project will use data on children’s self-reported relational and physical aggression from diverse countries to solve these issues. If the parents’ consent to have their contact information used for the research, they will be asked to submit a completed form and a letter describing the study. Afterward, families will be added to the research until each country’s target sample size is attained. The study aimed to identify the elements that lead to urban children’s hostility.; estimate the influence of children’s aggression on their academic achievement.; evaluate the efforts of educators and other children to combat aggression. Institutions assist children with aggressive behaviors and teachers’ obstacles in dealing with violent youngsters. Using stratified selection, the researcher selected ten schools out of 104 (five private and five public). In each school, nursery through third-grade aggressive students was selected using a stratified random sample. With the assistance of the class instructors, the two most hostile students were then picked for observation. All the instructors in preschool and lower primary (4 teachers per school, for a total of 40) were given questionnaires. At the same time, 40 violent children’s parents were randomly picked for interviews. The officer for Early Childhood Education (DICECE) and the district’s special education officer were randomly selected and given questionnaires.

Checklists were employed to gather data on the behavior of youngsters. To comprehend the academic achievement of youngsters, their progress records were examined. Before data collection, the instrument’s validity was assured by assessment by early childhood specialists, and its reliability was established using the test-retest procedure. It required thirty-two days to gather the data: three days each school for observations, interviews, examination of the children’s academic progress records, and ultimately the administration of the questionnaires. Using thematic content analysis with extracts, qualitative data were analyzed. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, while quantitative data were analyzed using linear regression. The research revealed no correlation between aggressive behaviors and academic success.


The research aimed to explore the effect of schooling on the aggressiveness of children aged 4-9. Aggressive behaviors include those that are intended to cause damage to others and are often an annoyance to many others. In order to solve these issues, the project will use statistics on children’s self-reported interpersonal and physical aggression from diverse countries. If the parents’ consent to have their contact information used for the research, they will be asked to submit a completed form and a letter describing the study. Then, families will be added to the research until the target sample size in each country has been attained (Bender et al., 2018). The study’s objectives were to: determine the factors that contribute to aggression among urban children; determine the effect of children’s aggression on their educational progress; assess the effort of teachers and other children’s institutions in assisting children with aggressive behaviors and identify the challenges teachers face when dealing with children with aggressive behaviors.

Aggressive behavior is aimed at inflicting damage to others, whether physically, in a fight, or socially, as in the propagation of nasty rumors (Connor et al.,2019). provided a detailed description of the early warning indications of likely future violent behavior. These warnings include social withdrawal, low school interest, poor academic performance, expressions of violence in writings and drawings, uncontrolled anger, patterns of impulsive and chronic hitting, intimidating and bullying, intolerance of differences and prejudiced attitudes, drug, and alcohol abuse, gang affiliation, serious physical fighting with peers or family members, severe destruction of property, detailed threats of lethal violence, and unauthorized access to firearms (Das et al.,2016. Studies identify other indicators, particularly in young children, such as grasping things, biting and hitting others, speaking back to adults, disputing directions, using profanity, making unpleasant remarks, and calling others insulting names. Education police are ill-equipped to deal with youngsters exhibiting aggressive behaviors. Academic advancement is hampered for children with violent behaviors. Increased money and research are required to aid these youngsters. School counseling and guidance programs are highly recommended.

Long ago, children with behavioral disorders were classified as mad or morons and placed in facilities for adults. By the middle of the 19th century, strategies such as individual evaluation, structured environment, functional curriculum, and life skills training had been created for such youngsters (Alam & Matava, 2022). In the United States, the education for All Handicap Children Act. All children with disabilities, including those with emotional disturbances, must receive a free public education, emphasizing special education and related services tailored to their specific needs (Zigmond & Kloo, 2017). Each disabled kid should be put in separate classes only if they cannot get an education in normal schools. Children with behavioral disorders have been underserved for a long time; many children who qualify for services have not gotten them. According to a study, violent behaviors negatively influence an individual’s emotional health (Sarmiento & Rudolf, 2017). It may lead to a decline in school performance, loneliness, anxiety, fear of social situations, negative emotions, depression, poor social skills, the inability to develop new friendships, becoming suspicious of their peers, emotional development, persistent absenteeism, and hostility towards peers, emotional stress, low self-esteem, adjustment difficulties, and poor relationship and friendship skills. According to Darling-Hammond and Cook-Harvey (2018), violence hinders children’s social and intellectual development and well-being. This undermines schools’ efforts to socialize students successfully.

Research Methodology

The research methodology was descriptive. According to Mohajan (2018), this approach helps the researcher discover individuals’ ideas and opinions about violence and educational advancement (McKinney et al., 2021). The design allowed the researcher to get the viewpoints and perspectives of teachers and children officers on the problem of children with violent behavior and its repercussions. This allowed the researcher to summarize the current state of things and formulate critical information and solution concepts for this substantial issue of violence in youngsters.

Independent Variable

The independent variable is children’s aggressive behaviors. This was determined by witnessing aggressive habits, such as fighting, bullying, stealing other children’s belongings without permission, throwing items, seizing objects, biting, and punching, pounding, disrupting activities, and frequent temper tantrums (Mohajan, 2018). It is also implied by speaking back, opposing directions, swearing, making unpleasant remarks, calling derogatory names, threatening others, and cursing others (Jeffrey, 2019).

Dependent Variable

Education progression is the dependent variable. This was determined by measuring children’s school attendance (regular school attendance), classroom involvement (active engagement in classes), task completion (timely completion of tasks), temporary school dropout (one-term absence from school), and academic achievement (Mahajan, 2018). The act of threatening and cursing people.


Alam, F., & Matava, C. (2022). A new virtual world? The future of immersive environments in anesthesiology. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 135(2), 230.

B. Sarmiento, C. R. D., & Rudolf, R. (2017). The impact of childhood maltreatment on young adults’ mental health: Evidence from the Philippines. Asian social work and policy review, 11(1), 76-89.

Bender, P. K., Plante, C., & Gentile, D. A. (2018). The effects of violent media content on aggression. Current opinion in psychology, 19, 104-108.

Connor, D. F., Newcorn, J. H., Saylor, K. E., Amann, B. H., Scahill, L., Robb, A. S., … & Buitelaar, J. K. (2019). Maladaptive aggression: with a focus on impulsive aggression in children and adolescents. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 29(8), 576-591.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Cook-Harvey, C. M. (2018). Educating the Whole Child: Improving School Climate to Support Student Success. Learning Policy Institute.

Das, J. K., Salam, R. A., Arshad, A., Finkelstein, Y., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2016). Interventions for adolescent substance abuse: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Adolescent Health, 59(4), S61-S75.

Jeffrey, J. R. (2019). “They Cannot Expect… That a Loyal People Will Tolerate the Utterance of Such Sentiments”: The Campaign against Treasonous Speech during the Civil War. Civil War History, 65(1), 7-42.

McKinney de Royston, M., Madkins, T. C., Givens, J. R., & Nasir, N. I. S. (2021). “I’ma teacher, I’m gonna always protect you”: Understanding black educators’ protection of black children. American Educational Research Journal, 58(1), 68-106.

Mohajan, H. K. (2018). Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), 23-48.

Zigmond, N. P., & Kloo, A. (2017). General and special education are (and should be) different. In Handbook of special education (pp. 249-261). Routledge.



Hypothesis: Aggression in Children

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Research Methods II: PSY 535

Instructor Keith Burton

July 24, 2022

Anger problems frequently coexist with other mental health difficulties in children, such as ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, and Tourette’s syndrome. Aggression may be influenced by biological factors such as genetics. Additionally, the environment plays a role. The following are some elements that raise the risk of violent behaviour being a target of sexual or physical abuse, a target of bullying community violence exposure and hereditary variables within the family. Also, frustration aggression may be a symptom in children with cognitive or communicative issues, including autism. As a result of their inability to express their emotions verbally and trouble managing their fear or irritation, children with these problems frequently become aggressive (Coyne, 2010). It is simple to control and manage aggression when one is aware of the elements that lead to the condition of anger. According to neurobiological theories, aggressive behaviour in children is closely related to low serotonin levels and elevated dopamine and epinephrine activity. Additionally, research has demonstrated that aggression is a highly forceful, improper, and non-adaptive verbal or physical strategy meant to advance personal interests. The main basis for a number of elements that influence the emergence of aggressive behaviours is found in gender disparities in aggression.


Boys are considered to be more physically aggressive than girls.

Research methodology

Based on the research topics pertaining to big data in large cities, this methodology will comprise a systematic way of compiling, critically assessing, integrating, and presenting findings from various research investigations. Data on children’s self-reported relational and physical aggressiveness from various nations will be used in the study to address these challenges. Children’s homes will get letters outlining the study, and if the parents agree to have their contact information used for the study, they will be requested to return a completed form. Following that, families will be included in the study up until the desired sample size is reached in each nation (Lochman et al., 2012). Families of kids from private and public schools will be sampled in about the same proportion to how they will be represented in the city’s population, in order to make each state’s sample as representative of the city from which it will be taken as possible. Additionally, a sample of children from schools serving families from high-, middle-, and low-income levels will be drawn, roughly according to how these income brackets will be represented in the local population.

Procedure and measures

The Behavior Frequency Scale will be applied to gauge relational and physical aggressiveness that is self-reported. Children will be asked how frequently they have committed a string of violent acts over the previous 30 days. For instance, aggressions like pushing and striking other children or trying to make people dislike someone by speaking hurtful things about them will be assessed. To guarantee the linguistic and conceptual equivalence of metrics across languages, a process of forward- and backward translation will be implemented.

When discrepancies and unclear passages will be found, site coordinators and translators will be expected to assess them and make the necessary changes. Children will be given rating scales in the form of visual aids to assist them in remembering their alternatives for responding to questions. The average interview will last 35 minutes.


Coyne, S. M., Nelson, D. A., & Underwood, M. (2010). Aggression in children. Cuellar, A. (2015). Preventing and treating child mental health problems. The Future of Children, 111-134.

Lochman, J. E., Powell, N. R., Whidby, J. M., & FitzGerald, D. P. (2012). Aggression in children.

Feedback85 %

Nice work here Martha.

Remember to use the formal APA style organization for Method sections. It should be it’s own section entitled “Method”, centered and bolded. Within should be the subsections on Participants, Measures (or Materials) and Procedure.

What you have written in the first paragraph under “Research Methodology” should be divvied up amongst those three subsections.

Within your Participants section should go the details about who you’ll study and how you’ll recruit them. If you’re recruiting families, indicate what their inclusion and exclusion criteria might be. If you’re recruiting from schools, indicate how you’d be doing so. Also include an estimate of how many participants you hope to recruit, and any demographic variables you’d plan to record.

Under the Measures section you should include the details of the materials you need to measure your variables. You mentioned a Behavior Frequency Scale – is that a published instrument? If so, make sure to cite it and clearly identify the ways it will measure your variable of interest (and remember, violence is just one kind of aggression). If it’s an original scale, keep in mind that you’d need to spell it out in it’s entirety as an appendix.

How will the scale be administered? Is this all done online? Face-to-face? You also mention an interview – is that how you’d gather data? Be specific here, and include it in your Procedure section.

Also, note that your references aren’t fully in APA style. The Coyne reference needs to be disentangled from the Cuellar reference, and the Cuellar reference needs to clarify the nature of that publication (book? journal? other?). Both Coyne and Lochman references are titled “Aggression in children” with no other information.

Mod 6 – Rough Draft of Final Paper

The draft should include an APA style title page, an abstract, a reasonably detailed introduction, a specific and replicable method section, and references (at least 10 peer-reviewed). Please see Final Proposal Paper Rubric to guide your work.

Please try not to copy and paste, when the instructor submits it into turnitin; Sweet Study shows up as if it was plagiarism.

1. Please read the introduction paper and view all comments made by instructor.

2. Please read Results and Discussion paper; the feedback to piggy off of is located at the bottom of the paper in red.

3. Please read the Hypothesis paper; the feedback to piggy off is located at the bottom of the paper in red.

Again, please do not copy and paste




in Children

Martha Ramsey Saint Leo University

Research Methods I: PSY-530

Instructor Lara Ault

July 3, 2022

Aggression in Children


Aggression in children is the first symptom of many underlying issues. Occasional outbursts of aggression in children are expected, but if it frequently occurs in a pattern, it is regarded as a problem (Masud et al., 2019). Additionally, if not well-checked, aggression in children can be detrimental to their health. Sometimes it is forceful, inappropriate, non-adaptive, verbal, or physical activities designed to pursue personal interest.

As of 2010, statistics have shown that aggression in children was reportedly at 35% in South Asian countries. Based on the current statistics, they demand a lot of hard work to be done for the behavior modification of children. The key to handling the behavior is understanding the factors that trigger aggression in children (Martinelli et al., 2018). The neurobiological theories affirm that low serotonin levels and increased operations of dopamine and epinephrine are linked with aggressive behaviors. In comparison, neuroimaging studies have shown that aggressive behaviors are linked with abnormalities associated with the cerebral cortex’s limbic, frontal, and temporal lobes (Perrotta & Fabiano, 2021). This research paper aims to discuss and provide an overview of the causes and effects of aggressive behaviors in children.

Research Questions

What are the gender differences in aggression?


Boys are considered to be more physically aggressive than girls.

Literature Review

Several research studies have affirmed that aggression in children has become a significant concern in modern society. For example, in his research, Cuellar (2015) argues that. Mental and behavioral disorders of children trigger their aggression behaviors, which may be detected and treated in any number of settings, including a pediatrician’s or psychologist’s office, schools, and the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Shamsa (2014), in his research, affirms that psychologically, aggressive children remain unhappy, upset, and distressed to the point of indulging in fighting with others and ending their conversations in conflict. As a result, these children are at a high risk of developing psychiatric problems (Pouw et al., 2015). Research also shows that aggression in children can emanate from media violence, prior experiences, and actual trauma that could trigger the fight response within the nervous system.

The existence of unhealthy relationships and communication gaps between parents and children also play a critical part in affecting their behaviors. (Fikkers et al., 2013). Further research has shown that psychological problems in parents, including drug abuse and misuse, alcoholism, and depression, among others, can significantly contribute to aggressive behaviors in children.

Understanding the factors that trigger the state of aggression makes it easy to handle and manage aggression. Siever (2008) elaborates that the neurobiological theories have suggested that the low serotonin levels and increased activity of dopamine and epinephrine are highly linked with aggressive behavior in children. In his further studies, Siever (2008) argues that aggressive behaviors are linked with abnormalities and other mental problems, such as the cerebral cortex’s limbic, frontal, and temporal lobes. Moreover, studies have shown that aggression is highly forceful, inappropriate, and non-adaptive verbal or physically designed to pursue personal interest (Stuart, 2009). According to Kanne and Mazurek (2011), several factors contribute to the development of aggressive behaviors, primarily based on

The gender differences in aggression. Research also affirms that gender is a critical factor in the line of aggression trajectories. For instance, aggression in early childhood is a predictor of engagement in later antisocial behaviors associated with boys, which is not a similar cause for girls (Coyne et al., 2010). At the ages five and 11, the number of boys engaged in a marked level of physical aggression has been stable, i.e., 3.7%. In contrast, on the other hand, there has been a tremendous decrease in the number of girls who are highly physically aggressive, i.e., from 2.3 % to 0.5% Lochman et al., (2012) extensively state in their report.

Research Methodology

In reviewing the concepts of this research, i.e., causes and effects of aggression behaviors in children, the researcher adopted the Systematic Literature Review Methodology. This methodology entails a systematic way of collecting, critically evaluating, integrating, and presenting findings from multiple research studies, based on the research questions relating to big data in smart cities (Nastaran et al., 2021). Additionally, the researcher depended on qualitative data and research surveys relating to the topic. With the review of different literature materials, the researcher managed to obtain critical information that would form the basis of the presentation of the findings on the approaches, techniques, and architects of big data on smart cities. The population chosen in this research comprised of reviewing several peer-reviewed journals published in the recent past (Mohajan, 2018). The researcher also depended on various journal articles published in different libraries to understand the subject of this research and deduce conclusions on the same.

Analysis and Findings

One of the most consistent and vigorous gender differences in the psychological literature is that boys are more physically aggressive than girls. The finding and results can be traced to different studies conducted under other conditions. Additionally, meta-analysis has confirmed that boys use more physical aggression than girls during preschool, early, and middle childhood (Shamsa, 2014). Moreover, this gender difference is distinct across diverse socioeconomic groups and cultures. For instance, Archer’s meta-analysis has found that boys were more physically aggressive than girls based on a myriad of reasons, such as in a multitude of cultures such as in the United States, India, China, Singapore, Slovenia, and Spain (Coyne et al., 2010). Moreover, regarding gender differences in aggression, boys are likely to be more aggressive than that girls for many reasons, which include biological and size differences, among others.

Additionally, boys are socially different than girls as far as aggressive behavior is concerned. Ideally, the research affirms that the use of physical aggression in girls is physically discouraged by parents, guardians, teachers, and their peers, among other stakeholders who interact with the children. Nevertheless, an attack by boys is not highly likely to be endorsed by those in authority, especially if the attack is mild (Pouw et al., 2013). Most boys are socialized to be rough as compared to girls, and in some cultures, boys are taught and advised that physical aggression is acceptable

Understandably, aggression moves in one direction; as a matter of fact, it creates more attacks. Significant adjustment problems such as internalizing difficulties, which include depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem, are childhood aggression’s critical

Consequences. Based on the analysis and findings, victimized children are highly likely to be rejected by peers and lack friends (Coyne et al., 2010). Moreover, most of such problems and difficulties endure well in adulthood, mainly because physical victimization is mostly stable, with the same children experiencing abuse over several years. Additionally, this stability can be associated with a common effect in the victimized children’s co-opting behaviors and lack of peer acceptance which tends to provoke more victimization, which leads to further degeneration in children’s emotional health and peer acceptance in society (Fikkers et al., 2013).

Nevertheless, existing studies have shown the widespread problems of those who persistently face such victimization, which include peer rejection and susceptibility to internalizing symptoms. Such symptoms may include loneliness, social anxiety problems, depression, withdrawn behaviors, and somatic complaints.


Coyne, S. M., Nelson, D. A., & Underwood, M. (2010). Aggression in children. Cuellar, A. (2015). Preventing and treating child mental health problems. The Future of Children, 111-134.

Fikkers, K., Piotrowski, J., Weeda, W., Vossen, H., & Valkenburg, P. (2013). double dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on

Kanne, S. M., & Mazurek, M. O. (2011). Aggression in children and adolescents with ASD: Prevalence and risk factors. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 41(7), 926- 937.

Lochman, J. E., Powell, N. R., Whidby, J. M., & FitzGerald, D. P. (2012). Aggression in children.

Pouw, L., Rieffe, C., Oosterveld, P., Huskens, B., & Stockmann, L. (2013). Reactive/proactive aggression and affective/cognitive empathy in children with ASD. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(4), 1256-1266. Retrieved from: Shamsa, A. (2014). Aggression in Children – Causes, Behavioral Manifestations, and Management. Journal of Pakistan Medical Students

Siever, L. J. (2008). Neurobiology of aggression and violence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165. 429-442. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07111774. Retrieved from

Stuart, G.W. (2009). Principles and practice of psychiatric nursing (9th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

Poster/PPT Presentation Rubric – Research Methods 2 PSY 535

Poster/Slides Poor Excellent

Organization of Information (good outline) 1 2 3 4 5

Ideas are clearly stated and understood 1 2 3 4 5

Attractiveness of slides/transitions 1 2 3 4 5

Complete (all necessary info included) 1 2 3 4 5


Quality of Materials/Ideas Poor Excellent

Materials for study are of sufficient quality 1 2 3 4 5

Methodology is appropriate to answer question 1 2 3 4 5

Variables are operationally defined appropriately 1 2 3 4 5

Provides theoretical background for study 1 2 3 4 5

Feasibility of study (could you really do this?) 1 2 3 4 5

Quality of hypotheses (linked to theory?) 1 2 3 4 5

Understanding of statistical analysis required 1 2 3 4 5

Understanding of possible outcomes/results 1 2 3 4 5

Able to articulate meaning of possible results 1 2 3 4 5

Peer-reviewed references (on reference page) 1 2 3 4 5

Delivery of Presentation Poor Excellent

Pace of speech is appropriate 1 2 3 4 5

Energy/enthusiasm 1 2 3 4 5

Volume is appropriate (no mumbling/ whispering/

yelling) 1 2 3 4 5

Clearly knowledgeable about topic 1 2 3 4 5

Holds audiences’ attention/responsive to inattentiveness

(or monotone deliver; tangents) 1 2 3 4 5

Anticipates and addresses possible questions at end 1 2 3 4 5

Individual Feedback:

Final Grade for Presentation:

Imposter Syndrome
Finding the Predictors

What is Imposter Syndrome?
Imposter Syndrome is a phenomenon originally termed by Clance and Imes in 1978. Those who have Imposter Syndrome are, in fact, not imposters at all. Imposter Syndrome (alternatively called Imposter Phenomenon) is a common psychological phenomenon in which individuals regularly believe that they are incompetent in their given field or at a type of task, regardless of their accomplishments and qualifications (Clance & Imes, 1978). These individuals deny their own skill and ability, chalking it up as “fooling others” or “luck” that has got them to where they are today.



“[I do not] carry such information in my mind since it is readily available in books. ”
“…The value of a college education is not the learning of many facts but the training of the mind to think.”


The current study is going to investigate three variables that to be possible predictors of Imposter Syndrome.
Self Concept Clarity
Vulnerable Narcissism
Upward Social Comparison


Predictor #1: Self-Concept Clarity
Self-Concept is defined as what an individual considers to be the most emblematic of their true nature, regardless of if the cognitive schema aligns with “actual” self of the individual (Schlegel et al., 2009). Thus, a clarity of self-concept is the ability that one has on identifying the characteristics that define them.
Schlegel et al. (2009) suggests that finding one’s “true self” contributes significantly to the overall well-being of an individual. Should a conflict arise with this identification, so shall conflict arise in the well-being of an individual.
Many young adults today have identification issues due to not fully seeing themselves as an adult or an adolescent (Arnett, 2001). This identity tension that arises within emerging adults can then continue forward into their professional lives, especially as they continue to achieve higher education (Murphy, Blustein, Bohlig, & Platt, 2010). This lack of a clear identity is suggested by the current study to foster a state in which Imposter Syndrome can grow.


Predictor #2: Vulnerable Narcissism
When people think of Narcissism, they tend to think of those who are Grandiose Narcissists: self-important and with feelings of superiority, as well as interpersonal exploitativeness (Raskin and Hall, 1981). Vulnerable Narcissism, by contrast, is a more sensitive form of narcissism. Those who are vulnerable narcissists are hypersensitive, defensive, and withdrawal internally (Cain et al., 2008). The vulnerable narcissist will essentially seek out attention and approval from others to boost their weak esteem.
A study by Kaufman et al. (2020) found that vulnerable narcissism is associated with feelings of Imposter Syndrome, as well as a weak sense of self. This study collectively finds that both imposter syndrome and a weaker sense of self are related to vulnerable narcissism, thus strengthening vulnerable narcissism as the second predictor to be analyzed in the current study.


Predictor #3: Upward Social Comparison
Upward Social Comparison is defined as comparing oneself to someone who is more “superior” or “better” than oneself (Wood 1989).
A study by Chayer and Bouffard (2010) found upward social comparison within children as young as ten years old, and within a sample of 10–12-year-olds, a positive correlation between feelings of imposter syndrome and upward social comparison. Furthermore, those who identified themselves with imposter feelings also identified themselves with peers who were less capable than them, rather than their more capable peers.

Individuals to be recruited will be of all ages (18+), ethnicities, and genders. Participants will be adults recruited via social media from the general population. The sample is most likely going to contain college students as portion of the sample. An attempt will be made to recruit at least 50 participants for the study. Participants will fill out online questionnaires that measure Imposter Syndrome, Self-Concept Clarity, Vulnerable Narcissism, and Upward Social Comparison. Additionally, participants will fill out a basic demographic questionnaire.


Measures for the current study include:
Leary Impostorism Scale. Items are scored on a Likert-Scale from 1-5. 1 = not at all characteristic of me. 2 = Slightly characteristic of me. 3 = Moderately characteristic of me. 4 = Very characteristic of me. 5 = Extremely characteristic of me.
The Iowa-Netherlands Social Comparison Orientation Measure. Items are scored from 1-5 with anchors ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
Campbell’s Self Concept Clarity Measure. Items are scored from 1-5 with anchors ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
International Personality Item Pool Representation of the NEO PI-R. Facets from this measure will be used to measure narcissism, with attention on vulnerable narcissism.


Because the current study will be measuring variables that may predict Imposter Syndrome, the results will be statistically analyzed through a Multiple Linear Regression analysis.

The statistical results will be presented as such: The results of this multilinear regression indicated that the model is/is not a significant predictor in Imposter Syndrome, F(_, _) =__, p=__. The model also explained/did not explain a significant proportion of variance in Imposter Syndrome, R2 = __. Self Concept Clarity did/did not significantly predict Imposter Syndrome scores, b =__, p = __. Additionally, Vulnerable Narcissism did/did not significantly predict Imposter Syndrome scores, b = __, p = __. Lastly, Upward Social Comparison was/was not a significant predictor in Imposter Syndrome scores, b = __, p =___.

Discussion: Implications of Results
Hypothesis 1: Upward Social Comparison as a Predictor of Imposter Syndrome
If predictive: This result would indicate the importance of how these social comparisons influence an individual’s own perceptions about themselves. This leads into the second predictor, self-concept clarity.
If not predictive: This would suggest that upward social comparison does not lead to feelings of Imposter Syndrome. This would conflict with some previous literature on the matter of upward social comparison and Imposter Syndrome (Chayer & Bouffard, 2010)


Discussion: Implications of Results
Hypothesis 2: Low Self-Concept Clarity as a Predictor of Imposter Syndrome
If predictive: Should the results find that Low Self-Concept is a predictor, it would support some alternative measures to combat against Imposter Syndrome, such as having an authentic analysis of self (Anderson, 2020) . Because having a low self-concept clarity would imply the inability to form a distinguished concept of oneself, it can indicate the warped sense of self that those with Imposter Syndrome have.
If not predictive: It would imply that Imposter Syndrome is not related to how clear an individual’s sense of self is. This would possibly imply that Imposter Syndrome has a different way in which it forms that does not relate to sense of self.


Discussion: Implications of Results
Hypothesis 3: Vulnerable Narcissism as a Predictor of Imposter Syndrome
If predictive: This is hypothesized because those with vulnerable narcissism negatively internalize criticism due to the conflict it has on their higher view of self. This, in turn, it can lead to a sensitivity to criticism (Atlas & Them, 2008). This sensitivity to criticism can then foster a state in which Imposter Syndrome can grow. Should the results indicate that vulnerable narcissism is predictive of Imposter Syndrome, it can solidify the mutual characteristics that both have (particularly the negative mindset of receiving criticism).
If not predictive: The results suggest that, although they share some of the same features, vulnerable narcissism and Imposter Syndrome are not related. It can be suggested to investigate other personality types that may be more prone to Imposter Syndrome.


Weaknesses of Study: Weaknesses of this study include using a survey format. While both an efficient and effective method of data collection, there is always the chance that participants may not be fully honest during the survey, or that they would answer questions in a way that they think the researchers want them to answer in. The survey may also be a bit lengthier than some shorter surveys, which may result in test-taker fatigue as well. Additionally, Multiple Linear Regression analysis is sensitive to outliers that may be present in the data.

Future Research:
Future research may choose to investigate the practical approach of applying therapeutic techniques on those with Imposter Syndrome to observe results. It can be suggested that those with Imposter Syndrome may benefit from therapy that focuses on distinguishing who they are, their passion, their mindfulness of the world, and their purpose in it. Previous research has found that those who practice mindfulness have lower levels of Imposter Syndrome, suggesting a possible beneficial method to combatting it (Anderson, 2020). Future experimental research may also want to focus on the effects of social comparison on Imposter Syndrome. One proposed experiment is to have participants network with those who are higher ranking in their field then themselves (upward social comparison). Then, have participants network with those who are lower leveled in their field then themselves (downward social comparison) and compare the results.
Overall, the results found within this current study can impact the future direction of Imposter Syndrome research and combative methods.

If you have any further questions regarding my study or Imposter Syndrome in general, I encourage you to reply to me in the discussion boards. I will answer all questions to the best of my ability.

Thank you!

Thank you for listening to my presentation! References for further reading can be found in the rest of these slides. Have a great day everyone.

Anderson, A. (2020). A Quantitative Examination of Mindfulness and Impostor Phenomenon in Clinical Counseling Supervisors (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).
Atlas, G. D., & Them, M. A. (2008). Narcissism and sensitivity to criticism: A preliminary investigation. Current psychology, 27(1), 62.
Arnett, J. J. (2001). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood: Perspectives from adolescence through midlife. Journal of adult development, 8(2), 133-143.
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