The immune system in the human body is responsible for repelling disease-causing organisms (pathogens). It is categorized into two broad classes; innate immunity (specific) and acquired immunity (non-specific). They operate in conjunction to repel microorganisms and prevent other invaders that might affect the normal functioning of the human body. Ideally, the physiological process in the human body refers to the activities and functions that are aimedat supporting life throughout their lifespan. There are two major arms of the human adaptive immune response, namely;humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity. This response depends entirely on the production of proteins with particular microbial antigenic moieties. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of a physiological process in the human body-immunity, in relation to cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity.
Cell-mediated immunity refers to a classification of adaptive immune response whose existence is due to the formation of T-cells or antigen-specific effector. During the process of adaptive response, a multifarious effector T-cells is produced(“Human Physiology/The Immune System – Wikibooks, open books for an open world”, 2019). They are actually responsible for the induction of effector functions and /or directly killing the infected cells.
Source: Janeway, Travers, Walport, &Shlomchik, (2001 pg. 286).
The activation of T-cells leads to the formation of adaptive T cell-mediated immunity. On the other hand, the endogenous antigen activates the cytotoxic T cells (CD8) whose function is to kill the infected cells while the helper T cells (CD4) stimulate macrophage to destroy the endosomal pathogens. The regulatory T cells (CD25+FOXP3) regularly referred to as suppressor T cells prevent the immune response from causing any excessive damage to organs and tissues (JanewayJr, Travers, Walport, &Shlomchik, 2001). The memory T cells (CD62 + CCR7) keep the record of previous happenings to enable the immune system to react faster and effective in case the offending organism or pathogen decides to return.
T cell responses are responsible for the defense against fungal infections and bacteria such as tuberculosis. They normally eliminate cancer cells and also reject transplanted organs. Generally, the T Cell-mediated immunity functions by differentiating its antigen from non-self antigens (Chamorro-Ortega, 2015). These are the major histocompatibility complex molecules present in cancer cells and foreign cells(“T-CMI”, 2019). The process is normally referred to as self-recognition. A lack of reactivity to own proteins is what is referred to as immunological tolerance.
Source: system, I., & response, C. (2019). Cell-mediated Immune Response Stock Vector – Illustration of immune, chemical: 39284952. Retrieved from https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-cell-mediated-immune-response-immunity-t-lymphocytes-do-not-secrete-antibodies-incorporates-activated-macrophages-natural-image39284952
Humoral immunity, also known as antibody-mediated immune response, refers to a category of adaptive immune response whose formation is due to the production of antigen-specific Antibodies that usually attack an invading microbe. The process is facilitated by B-Cells in conjunction with CD4+T-cells (JanewayJr et al., 2001). Therefore, humoral immunity cannot take place in the absence of Cell-mediated immunity.
The humoral immunity results in the generation of proteins commonly called antibodies or immunoglobulins. Once the human body is exposed to an antigen or foreign material such as bacteria or virus, a humoral response is activated (“Human Physiology/The Immune System – Wikibooks, open books for an open world”, 2019). The immunoglobulin surface acts as a B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). The B-cell activation is two-phase; first, signals are transmitted from the antigen receptor on T-Cells to the interior of the cell. Secondly, the antigen is delivered by the B-Cell antigen receptor to intracellular sites (Slifka, Antia, Whitmire, &Ahmed,1998; Manser, 2007). The B-Cell activation requires both B-cell and antigen-specific helper T cells interaction and binding of antigen by the B-cell receptor (JanewayJr et al., 2001). The helper T cell has the ability to recognize the presence of peptide fragments generated by MHC class II complexes (Galon et al., 2006). By binding CD40L on T cell to CD40, the helper T cells facilitate the interaction of other TNF-TNF-receptor.
|Effector Cells in Adaptive Immunity|
|EffectorT Cell||PathogenLocation||AntigenPresentation||Target CellAction|
|CellularImmunity||TcCD8cytotoxic||Cytoplasm||Infected Cell MHC I||Infected cellapoptosis|
|Th1CD4inflammatory||Macrophagevesicles||Macrophage MHC II||Macrophage activation to kill the pathogen|
|HumoralImmunity||Th2CD4helper||Extracellular||APCMHC II||B cell antibody production|
The purpose of this paper was to provide a description of a physiological process in the human body-immunity, in relation to cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity. These are the two major arms of the human adaptive immune response. This response depends entirely on the production of proteins with particular microbial antigenic moieties.
Chamorro-Ortega, M. (2015). Effect of maternally-derived immunity in the development of humoral immune responses to vaccination and subsequent challenge with BVDV (Doctoral dissertation).
Galon, J., Costes, A., Sanchez-Cabo, F., Kirilovsky, A., Mlecnik, B., Lagorce-Pagès, C., …&Zinzindohoué, F. (2006). Type, density, and location of immune cells within humancolorectal tumors predict clinical outcome. Science, 313(5795), 1960-1964.
Human Physiology/The Immune System – Wikibooks, open books for an open world. (2019). Retrieved from https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/The_Immune_System
JanewayJr, C. A., Travers, P., Walport, M., &Shlomchik, M. J. (2001). The complement systemand innate immunity. In Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease.5thedition. Garland Science.
Manser, T. (Ed.).(2007). Specialization and complementation of humoral immune responses to infection (Vol. 319).Springer Science & Business Media.
Slifka, M. K., Antia, R., Whitmire, J. K., & Ahmed, R. (1998).Humoralimmunity due to long-lived plasma cells. Immunity, 8(3), 363-372.
Janet M. Decker (2019) Arizona Courses and Tutorials. Retrieved from http://www2.nau.edu/~fpm/immunology/Exams/TCMI-401.html#act
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