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Aggressionin Children

Martha Ramsey Saint Leo University

Research Methods I: PSY-530

Instructor Lara Ault

July 3, 202


bold your title

name and institution appear on separate lines




Aggression in Children


Aggression in children is the first symptom of many underlying issues. Occasional

outbursts of aggression in children are expected, but if it frequently occurs in a pattern, it is

regarded as a problem (Masud et al., 2019). Additionally, if not well-checked, aggression in

children can be detrimental to their health. Sometimes it is forceful, inappropriate, non-adaptive,

verbal, or physical activities designed to pursue personal interest.

As of 2010, statistics have shown that aggression in children was reportedly at 35% in

South Asian countries. Based on the current statistics, they demand a lot of hard work to be done

for the behavior modification of children. The key to handling the behavior is understanding the

factors that trigger aggression in children (Martinelli et al., 2018). The neurobiological theories

affirm that low serotonin levels and increased operations of dopamine and epinephrine are linked

with aggressive behaviors. In comparison, neuroimaging studies have shown that aggressive

behaviors are linked with abnormalities associated with the cerebral cortex’s limbic, frontal, and

temporal lobes (Perrotta & Fabiano, 2021). This research paper aims to discuss and provide an

overview of the causes and effects of aggressive behaviors in


Research Questions

What are the gender differences in aggression?


Boys are considered to be more physically aggressive than girls.


why are we focusing on South Asia here?


in comparison to what?

isn’t this already quite well established?







Literature Review

Several research studies have affirmed that aggression in children has become a

significant concern in modern society. For example, in his research, Cuellar (2015) argues that.

Mental and behavioral disorders of children trigger their aggression behaviors, which may be

detected and treated in any number of settings, including a pediatrician’s or psychologist’s office,

schools, and the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Shamsa (2014), in his research, affirms

that psychologically, aggressive children remain unhappy, upset, and distressed to the point of

indulging in fighting with others and ending their conversations in conflict. As a result, these

children are at a high risk of developing psychiatric problems (Pouw et al., 2015). Research also

shows that aggression in children can emanate from media violence, prior experiences, and

actual trauma that could trigger the fight response within the nervous system.

The existence of unhealthy relationships and communication gaps between parents and

children also play a critical part in affecting their behaviors. (Fikkers et al., 2013). Further

research has shown that psychological problems in parents, including drug abuse and misuse,

alcoholism, and depression, among others, can significantly contribute to aggressive behaviors in


Understanding the factors that trigger the state of aggression makes it easy to handle and

manage aggression. Siever (2008) elaborates that the neurobiological theories have suggested

that the low serotonin levels and increased activity of dopamine and epinephrine are highly

linked with aggressive behavior in children. In his further studies, Siever (2008) argues that

aggressive behaviors are linked with abnormalities and other mental problems, such as the

cerebral cortex’s limbic, frontal, and temporal lobes. Moreover, studies have shown that

aggression is highly forceful, inappropriate, and non-adaptive verbal or physically designed to

period shouldn’t be here

it was hard to find these sources in your references, as they aren’t separated properly (see below)

what exactly is the focus of this sentence?

awkward phrasing

this is confusing – above you argued that mental and behavioral disorders trigger aggression, but here you’re saying that ongoing aggression puts them at risk of psychiatric problems. isn’t this somewhat circular reasoning? or are both true?

cite your source

This is a two-sentence paragraph, which is quite short. What is the purpose of this paragraph? It seemes to be continuing the discussion above re: causes of aggression. If so, why is it not combined with the prior paragraph? Or am I misunderstanding?

can make it easier

wording – the different lobes/cortices are not instnaces of “other mental problems”. They’re regions of the brain.

this sounds more like a definition of aggression than a finding?












pursue personal interest (Stuart, 2009). According to Kanne and Mazurek (2011), several factors

contribute to the development of aggressive behaviors, primarily based on

The gender differences in aggression. Research also affirms that gender is a critical factor

in the line of aggression trajectories. For instance, aggression in early childhood is a predictor of

engagement in later antisocial behaviors associated with boys, which is not a similar cause for

girls (Coyne et al., 2010). At the ages five and 11, the number of boys engaged in a marked level

of physical aggression has been stable, i.e., 3.7%. In contrast, on the other hand, there has been a

tremendous decrease in the number of girls who are highly physically aggressive, i.e., from 2.3

% to 0.5% Lochman et al., (2012) extensively state in their report.

Research Methodology

In reviewing the concepts of this research, i.e., causes and effects of aggression behaviors

in children, the researcher adopted the Systematic Literature Review Methodology. This

methodology entails a systematic way of collecting, critically evaluating, integrating, and

presenting findings from multiple research studies, based on the research questions relating to

big data in smart cities (Nastaran et al., 2021). Additionally, the researcher depended on

qualitative data and research surveys relating to the topic. With the review of different literature

materials, the researcher managed to obtain critical information that would form the basis of the

presentation of the findings on the approaches, techniques, and architects of big data on smart

cities. The population chosen in this research comprised of reviewing several peer-reviewed

journals published in the recent past (Mohajan, 2018). The researcher also depended on various

journal articles published in different libraries to understand the subject of this research and

deduce conclusions on the same.

on what?

you didn’t address Dr. Ault’s request for clarification here or later in this paragraph.




Analysis and Findings

One of the most consistent and vigorous gender differences in the psychological literature

is that boys are more physically aggressive than girls. The finding and results can be traced to

different studies conducted under other conditions. Additionally, meta-analysis has confirmed

that boys use more physical aggression than girls during preschool, early, and middle childhood

(Shamsa, 2014). Moreover, this gender difference is distinct across diverse socioeconomic

groups and cultures. For instance, Archer’s meta-analysis has found that boys were more

physically aggressive than girls based on a myriad of reasons, such as in a multitude of cultures

such as in the United States, India, China, Singapore, Slovenia, and Spain (Coyne et al., 2010).

Moreover, regarding gender differences in aggression, boys are likely to be more aggressive than

that girls for many reasons, which include biological and size differences, among others.

Additionally, boys are socially different than girls as far as aggressive behavior is

concerned. Ideally, the research affirms that the use of physical aggression in girls is physically

discouraged by parents, guardians, teachers, and their peers, among other stakeholders who

interact with the children. Nevertheless, an attack by boys is not highly likely to be endorsed by

those in authority, especially if the attack is mild (Pouw et al., 2013). Most boys are socialized to

be rough as compared to girls, and in some cultures, boys are taught and advised that physical

aggression is acceptable

Understandably, aggression moves in one direction; as a matter of fact, it creates more

attacks. Significant adjustment problems such as internalizing difficulties, which include

depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem, are childhood aggression’s critical

what does “other” mean here? other than what?

you’re equating the terms “physical aggression” and “aggression” throughout this paragraph, and indeed boys are more physically aggressive in general. however, there are forms of non-physical aggression, and the gender splits are less clear-cut there.




Consequences. Based on the analysis and findings, victimized children are highly likely to be

rejected by peers and lack friends (Coyne et al., 2010). Moreover, most of such problems and

difficulties endure well in adulthood, mainly because physical victimization is mostly stable,

with the same children experiencing abuse over several years. Additionally, this stability can be

associated with a common effect in the victimized children’s co-opting behaviors and lack of

peer acceptance which tends to provoke more victimization, which leads to further degeneration

in children’s emotional health and peer acceptance in society (Fikkers et al., 2013).

Nevertheless, existing studies have shown the widespread problems of those who

persistently face such victimization, which include peer rejection and susceptibility to

internalizing symptoms. Such symptoms may include loneliness, social anxiety problems,

depression, withdrawn behaviors, and somatic complaints.



Coyne, S. M., Nelson, D. A., & Underwood, M. (2010). Aggression in children. Cuellar, A.

(2015). Preventing and treating child mental health problems. The Future of Children,


Fikkers, K., Piotrowski, J., Weeda, W., Vossen, H., & Valkenburg, P. (2013). double dose: High

Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on

Kanne, S. M., & Mazurek, M. O. (2011). Aggression in children and adolescents with ASD:

Prevalence and risk factors. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 41(7), 926-


Lochman, J. E., Powell, N. R., Whidby, J. M., & FitzGerald, D. P. (2012). Aggression in


Pouw, L., Rieffe, C., Oosterveld, P., Huskens, B., & Stockmann, L. (2013). Reactive/proactive

aggression and affective/cognitive empathy in children with ASD. Research in

Developmental Disabilities, 34(4), 1256-1266. Retrieved from: Shamsa, A. (2014). Aggression in

Children – Causes, Behavioral Manifestations, and Management. Journal of Pakistan

Medical Students

Siever, L. J. (2008). Neurobiology of aggression and violence. The American Journal of

Psychiatry, 165. 429-442. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07111774. Retrieved from

Stuart, G.W. (2009). Principles and practice of psychiatric nursing (9th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

is this a book? a journal article? reference is incomplete

references are not in APA format.





Results and Discussion Draft: Aggression in Children

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Research Methods II: PSY 535

Instructor Keith Burton

August 7, 2022


In the analysis, a few items will be measured: the frequency of children being aggressive towards others. Two types of aggressiveness will be measured, relational aggressiveness and physical aggressiveness. Two scales will be used to combine the scores: the relational aggressiveness scale (RAS) and the physical aggressiveness scale (PAS). The scores for each scale will range from 0 to 5, where the scale measures the number of instances or times the children will have been aggressive towards their colleagues. A score of 0 means that the child is not aggressive, a scale of 1 means that the child is slightly aggressive, two means that the child is relatively aggressive, three means that the child is aggressive, 4 means the more aggressive, and five means that the highly aggressive.

With six questions, each with an option to score a maximum of 5 points and a minimum of 0, each type of aggressiveness will have a possible total score of 30. The two types of aggressiveness will thus have a cumulative maximum score of 60, whereas the least score is 0 for each participant or response received.

In the two scales, if more than 4 item questions are missing, the response will be disregarded and not included in the analysis. If three or fewer items are missing from each scale, then the average of the answered items will be awarded to the missing items used in the analysis.

The scores for each scale will be added based on the gender and their averages determined. The averages will be compared between the genders to identify the possible patterns.



In PAS, using excel, a comparison between each of the six items being examined will be made. This will show between each element of the PAS scale which gender has the highest scores. In RAS, using excel, a comparison button for each of the six items being examined will be made. This will show between each element of the RAS scale which gender has the highest scores.

Comparisons will be done between the sums of variables for the two genders. The results will be able to depict the gender that is more aggressive relationally and more aggressive physically. The overall mean scores across the genders based on the two scales will be computed and compared. The largest mean between the genders will imply the more aggressive gender.

Using excel, a Pearson’s R-value will be calculated to establish whether there is a relationship between relational aggressiveness and physical aggressiveness in boys and girls separately.


Aggressiveness tends to occur in two different types: relationally and physically. Both boys and girls are expected to exhibit these characteristics separately. A boy is expected to be more relationally aggressive than physically aggressive or vice versa. Others are expected to depict both characteristics. For girls, it’s expected that girls will display more aggressiveness, either relationally or physically, or both. This is because some girls are good at using verbal words and cues to make their peers like or hate others. Other girls are physically more aggressive when using words and non-physical means. These characteristics are also expected to be exhibited in boys. The results will indicate whether the boys are more aggressive, or the girls are more aggressive than their male counterparts.

These results are very important because they will be used to understand how best to approach the two genders with the desire to have a program that can be used to make boys and girls how to control their behaviors. This concerns aggressiveness and social wellbeing. More aggressive children tend to be less social, and this is because they do not tolerate certain social behaviors that are exhibited by their counterparts.

It is thus paramount for people in charge of such young people to understand how to teach them to embrace socializing and better ways to resolve disputes or misunderstandings than resolving to become aggressive and thus harming other peers.


Coyne, S. M., Nelson, D. A., & Underwood, M. (2010). Aggression in children.

Cuellar, A. (2015). Preventing and treating child mental health problems. The Future of Children, 111-134.

Lochman, J. E., Powell, N. R., Whidby, J. M., & FitzGerald, D. P. (2012). Aggression in children.

Skinner, A. Behavior Frequency Scale. Parenting Across Cultures. Retrieved 3 August 2022, from

Behavior Frequency Scale


Feedback77.5 %

Please make sure to review the sample papers provided to see the level of detail expected for final results/discussion sections.

With regard to your results, try to connect the specific proposed analyses with the hypotheses you’re testing. And if you’re doing a gender comparison, a Pearson’s r will not be what you want. Any straight group comparison will require either a t-test (two groups, one DV) or an ANOVA (2 or more groups, one or more DVs).

Also make sure to discuss some other anticipatable limitations to this kind of study – for example, the preconceptions the raters might have about boys’ and girls’ behavior. And what else might be helpful to measure here? Any confounds that you haven’t considered?



Hypothesis: Aggression in Children

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Research Methods II: PSY 535

Instructor Keith Burton

July 24, 2022

Anger problems frequently coexist with other mental health difficulties in children, such as ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, and Tourette’s syndrome. Aggression may be influenced by biological factors such as genetics. Additionally, the environment plays a role. The following are some elements that raise the risk of violent behaviour being a target of sexual or physical abuse, a target of bullying community violence exposure and hereditary variables within the family. Also, frustration aggression may be a symptom in children with cognitive or communicative issues, including autism. As a result of their inability to express their emotions verbally and trouble managing their fear or irritation, children with these problems frequently become aggressive (Coyne, 2010). It is simple to control and manage aggression when one is aware of the elements that lead to the condition of anger. According to neurobiological theories, aggressive behaviour in children is closely related to low serotonin levels and elevated dopamine and epinephrine activity. Additionally, research has demonstrated that aggression is a highly forceful, improper, and non-adaptive verbal or physical strategy meant to advance personal interests. The main basis for a number of elements that influence the emergence of aggressive behaviours is found in gender disparities in aggression.


Boys are considered to be more physically aggressive than girls.

Research methodology

Based on the research topics pertaining to big data in large cities, this methodology will comprise a systematic way of compiling, critically assessing, integrating, and presenting findings from various research investigations. Data on children’s self-reported relational and physical aggressiveness from various nations will be used in the study to address these challenges. Children’s homes will get letters outlining the study, and if the parents agree to have their contact information used for the study, they will be requested to return a completed form. Following that, families will be included in the study up until the desired sample size is reached in each nation (Lochman et al., 2012). Families of kids from private and public schools will be sampled in about the same proportion to how they will be represented in the city’s population, in order to make each state’s sample as representative of the city from which it will be taken as possible. Additionally, a sample of children from schools serving families from high-, middle-, and low-income levels will be drawn, roughly according to how these income brackets will be represented in the local population.

Procedure and measures

The Behavior Frequency Scale will be applied to gauge relational and physical aggressiveness that is self-reported. Children will be asked how frequently they have committed a string of violent acts over the previous 30 days. For instance, aggressions like pushing and striking other children or trying to make people dislike someone by speaking hurtful things about them will be assessed. To guarantee the linguistic and conceptual equivalence of metrics across languages, a process of forward- and backward translation will be implemented.

When discrepancies and unclear passages will be found, site coordinators and translators will be expected to assess them and make the necessary changes. Children will be given rating scales in the form of visual aids to assist them in remembering their alternatives for responding to questions. The average interview will last 35 minutes.


Coyne, S. M., Nelson, D. A., & Underwood, M. (2010). Aggression in children. Cuellar, A. (2015). Preventing and treating child mental health problems. The Future of Children, 111-134.

Lochman, J. E., Powell, N. R., Whidby, J. M., & FitzGerald, D. P. (2012). Aggression in children.

Feedback85 %

Nice work here Martha.

Remember to use the formal APA style organization for Method sections. It should be it’s own section entitled “Method”, centered and bolded. Within should be the subsections on Participants, Measures (or Materials) and Procedure.

What you have written in the first paragraph under “Research Methodology” should be divvied up amongst those three subsections.

Within your Participants section should go the details about who you’ll study and how you’ll recruit them. If you’re recruiting families, indicate what their inclusion and exclusion criteria might be. If you’re recruiting from schools, indicate how you’d be doing so. Also include an estimate of how many participants you hope to recruit, and any demographic variables you’d plan to record.

Under the Measures section you should include the details of the materials you need to measure your variables. You mentioned a Behavior Frequency Scale – is that a published instrument? If so, make sure to cite it and clearly identify the ways it will measure your variable of interest (and remember, violence is just one kind of aggression). If it’s an original scale, keep in mind that you’d need to spell it out in it’s entirety as an appendix.

How will the scale be administered? Is this all done online? Face-to-face? You also mention an interview – is that how you’d gather data? Be specific here, and include it in your Procedure section.

Also, note that your references aren’t fully in APA style. The Coyne reference needs to be disentangled from the Cuellar reference, and the Cuellar reference needs to clarify the nature of that publication (book? journal? other?). Both Coyne and Lochman references are titled “Aggression in children” with no other information.

Mod 6 – Rough Draft of Final Paper

The draft should include an APA style title page, an abstract, a reasonably detailed introduction, a specific and replicable method section, and references (at least 10 peer-reviewed). Please see Final Proposal Paper Rubric to guide your work.

Please try not to copy and paste, when the instructor submits it into turnitin; Sweet Study shows up as if it was plagiarism.

1. Please read the introduction paper and view all comments made by instructor.

2. Please read Results and Discussion paper; the feedback to piggy off of is located at the bottom of the paper in red.

3. Please read the Hypothesis paper; the feedback to piggy off is located at the bottom of the paper in red.

Again, please do not copy and paste

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