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Literature Review

Comment by Sarah Gurley-Green: Need title of the paper here, univeirsity and title of the course

Sherley Delva

BHS 495-I12

08/12/22

Literature Review

How to increase awareness and training to reduce the risk of stroke in the Haitian population Comment by Sarah Gurley-Green: Not sure why this is here. Is the beginning of an abstract. I hope so

Introduction

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is influenced by various factors, including a person’s age, lifestyle choices, and genetics. Stroke is a common CVD that has become a problem in Haiti. However, the Haitian government has implemented some interventions but has have not fully controlled the increasing disease cases and even mortalities. The Haitian population has changed their lifestyle significantly, leading to an increase in diseases and the government intervention that is in place includes medication that burdens the healthcare system (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Fried food is associated as a contributing cause to most CVD-like strokes in Haiti. Fried food intake has not been related to an elevated risk of stroke (Gillespie, 2021). There is also the aspect that men fail to see the doctor or take thetheir medication that, which worsens the situation in Haiti. There is a gap in the intervention needed, and more focus needs to be considered by making moves toward preventing the disease. This paper will discuss how to address Stroke stroke disease through preventive mechanisms. Comment by Sarah Gurley-Green: refers to the interventions, not the government, hence is plural. Comment by Sarah Gurley-Green: Do these two sentences contradict each other?

Haiti Healthcare Status and Topic Importance

The Haitian population battling CVD diseases, especially the common coronary heart disease that significantly contributes to stroke, are becoming the leading causes of death. The healthcare system is experiencing a huge burden since more costs are used in treating stroke patients, and this limits the access to other healthcare services by patients. The issue of discrimination is also a challenge where the black Haitian population fails to receive equity in healthcare compared to the majority groups. Since the population experiences the challenge of limited opportunities that limit their income, resulting in difficulty in accessing quality healthcare services. The topic is important in helping the Haiti pupationpopulation fight the lifestyle disease menace by changing the way of life and transforming healthcare from a reactive approach to proactive intervention.

Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases

Researchers showed that fried food raises the risk of serious cardiovascular conditions like stroke. “There was a 28% greater risk of major cardiovascular events, a 22% greater risk of coronary heart disease, and a 37% greater risk of heart failure among those who ate the most fried food weekly than those who consumed the least” (Gillespie, 2021). Fried foods are a bad idea because it’s cooked in oil;, fried food has a greater calorie count because of the fat it absorbs from the oil (Bowen et al., 2018). One of the risk factors for stroke and heart disease is obesity, which is related to larger caloric consumption. According to McNairy & Leighton (2019), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the primary cause of death in Haitian adults. As a result of Haiti’s poverty-related social and environmental variables, hypertension appears to be the country’s most significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Lookens et al., 2020). However, the frequency, incidence, key risk factors, and societal and environmental drivers are unknown. Longitudinal cohort studies are urgently required to identify strategies to prevent CVD and enhance health outcomes for Haitians in both Haiti and the United States (McNairy & Leighton, 2019). Comment by Sarah Gurley-Green: once you show the acronyn for a term in APA, you use the acronym throughout.

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases (Stroke)

Cardiovascular illness can be triggered by multiple health conditions, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and excessive blood cholesterol levels. They are well-recognized as important contributors to the development of heart disease (Gudsoorkar & Tobe, 2017). Pressure in the blood can have an impact on the heart and brain’s ability to function. Cholesterol testing can help determine one’s risk for cardiovascular disease. The prevention strategies that are known to work in the fight against lifestyle diseases like stroke include diet, exercise, and medication.

High salt leads to High Blood Pressure and later Stroke (if untreated) Comment by Sarah Gurley-Green: Use capitals for each word

The heart’s pumping action distributes oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. The blood flows through the vessels and presses against them. Your blood pressure measures how strongly the blood vessels are being pushed. When blood pressure is elevated, the blood vessels are subjected to an unsafe amount of force. Sodium is essential in body functions, although only in trace amounts. Sodium is essential for transmitting nerve impulses, the contraction, and relaxation of muscles, and regulating the body’s fluid and mineral levels (WHO, 2020). An excessive amount of sodium, primarily in the form of table salt. Bread, sandwiches, hotdogs, and snacks are examples of processed meals that may also have a high sodium content. The high intake of salt into the body through different sources, including table salt, results in the body holding much water in the blood, which leads to the creation of excessive pressure in the blood vessels, resulting in high blood pressure. Blood pressure is increased by consuming an excessive amount of salt. The pressure affects the blood flow in the body, including the brain. When the blood pressure is too high, the blood vessels may become too narrow and weak, increasing the chances of the barrier to blood flow. Comment by Sarah Gurley-Green: did you mention sodium before in the paer—beter check and if not it should be by now

When brain tissue does not receive enough blood flow, it cannot receive enough oxygen and nutrients, and brain cells begin to die. This is what we mean when we talk about a stroke. A high-salt diet is more strongly linked to the development of high blood pressure, especially the rise in blood pressure that occurs with aging than is obesity combined with a lack of activity. The body’s sodium balance is thrown off by a diet heavy in salt. This results in fluid retention, which pushes even harder on the blood vessel walls. Fewer fatalities will be recorded in Haiti if the people consider reducing salt intake in food significantly, even if the average daily salt intake is reduced by only one gram. It is projected that if people worldwide reduced their salt intake from 10 grams per day to 6 grams per day, their blood pressure would drop, and almost 2.6 million stroke and heart attack-related fatalities would be avoided annually (WHO, 2020). Reducing your salt intake is one of the quickest strategies to improve your condition for those who record high blood pressure. The prevention strategy in reducing the cases of high blood pressure and stroke among the population is through awareness and education program that helps reduce salt intake. It is essential to appreciate the fact that exercise and a balanced diet are not enough to reduce stroke but look at the intake of salt since childhood (WHO, 2020). Professionals from the healthcare setting should take up the mandate of developing learning content that should be conducted in different parts of Haiti and involve the community leaders and also schools in making sure that the information reaches out to them. Using various platforms, including social media, will help significantly reduce stroke and intake of salt that risks people’s lives.

Importance of Dietary Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases

Diet and exercise are anticipated to keep people in good health, as are their weight-related issues. Stewart et al. (2017) claim that nutrition has a significant influence on the prediction of cardiovascular disease risk, but there is not much data to support clear suggestions for people to follow. The American Heart Association (AHA), for example, works to encourage a healthy diet in the United States. Using low-sugar foods, including vegetables, fruits, and grains, is inspired by the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) (Stewart et al., 2017). A high-saturated-fat, high-cholesterol diet is recommended (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Patients with cardiovascular issues are often prescribed low-sugar and low-salt diets as part of their treatment. To avoid high blood pressure and heart failure concerns, it is important to limit the consumption of salty foods linked to water retention (Bowen et al., 2018). To reduce blood pressure, sodium intake should not exceed 1500-2400 mg daily (Bowen et al., 2018). However, eliminating salt from one’s diet is never a good idea because the body benefits from salt’s existence. Considering limiting the highlighted food in the diet would help in a significant way in reducing the risks of CVD and stroke in particular. Haiti is a country that has reported high cases of cardiovascular diseases, and this is contributed highly by high salt and sugar intake that should be reduced through awareness and educational programs (Cannie et al., 2019).

Role of Exercise Training in Cardiovascular Disease Management

The Haitian population can prevent cardiovascular disease, including stroke, with improved lifestyle adjustments. Haiti’s government should consider adopting the best exercise programs that have been proven to help reduce mortality and morbidity rates and bring change in the health sector (Stewart et al., 2017). In other words, Haiti people should be compelled to engage in physical activity or enroll in physical education programs. On the other hand, it has been indicated that increased exercise improves health and reduces risk (Chauhdry, 2021). Another weekly or biweekly exercise to engage in is muscle strengthening (Stewart et al., 2017). People at high risk of heart disease should check with their therapists to see if the suggested change is safe for them. Comment by Sarah Gurley-Green: A big strong here! choose a different word

Addressing Stroke through Education

Haiti has experienced more cases of cardiovascular diseases as compared to HIV disease, and this has been an urgent concern because more people are losing their lives. Education and awareness are an intervention that is necessary for educating the public about the importance of avoiding fried fast foods, excessive salt, and sugar and considering engaging in physical exercise (Jean‐Charles, 2014). The population needed to be educated to engage in dietary learning programs and physical lessons that prepare them to avoid cardiovascular diseases like stroke that are preventable (Hickey et al., 2018). Losing someone close due to stroke was a challenging experience as a resident of Haiti, and this shows that more focus should be directed towards preventing the disease from minimizing the burden the conditions are bringing to the healthcare system.

Medication

A recombinant TPA (also known as alteplase (Activase) and TNKase) injection by intravenous (IV) infusion is the gold standard treatment for ischemic stroke (Mayo Clinic, 2022). Within the initial 3 hours, an injectable TPA is usually administered through a vein in the arm. TPA can be administered up to 4.5 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. This medicine restores blood flow by breaking the blood clot that caused the stroke. This could help patients recover more rapidly from a stroke if the cause of the stroke is swiftly eliminated.

References

Bowen, K. J., Sullivan, V. K., Kris-Etherton, P. M., & Petersen, K. S. (2018). Nutrition and cardiovascular disease – An update. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 20(2).

Brinsden, H., & Farrand, C. (2017). Reducing salt; preventing stroke. Nutrition Bulletin, 37(1), 57-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01947.x

Cannie, D. E., Akhtar, M. M., & Elliott, P. (2019). Hidden in heart failure. European Cardiology Review, 14(2), 89-96. Web.

CDC. (2018). Fast Food Consumption among Adults in the United States, 2013–2016. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db322.htm.

Chauhdry, H. (2021). Understanding the importance of recognising, treating, and preventing stroke. Nursing Standard, 37(1), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.2021.e11596

El Mabchour, A., Delisle, H., Vilgrain, C., Larco, P., Sodjinou, R., & Batal, M. (2022). Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from.

Gillespie, C. (2021). Fried Food Increases Risk of Stroke and Heart Disease, Analysis Finds. Verywell Fit. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from https://www.verywellfit.com/fried-food-increases-heart-disease-stroke-risk-5097461.

Gudsoorkar, P., & Tobe, S. (2017). Changing concepts in hypertension management. Journal of Human Hypertension, 31(12), 763-767. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2017.57

Hickey, A., Mellon, L., Williams, D., Shelley, E., & Conroy, R. M. (2018). Does stroke health promotion increase awareness of appropriate behavioural response? Impact of the face, arm, speech, and time (FAST) campaign on population knowledge of stroke risk factors, warning signs, and emergency response. European Stroke Journal, 3(2), 117-125. Web.

Jean‐Charles, R. (2014). Challenges in Hypertension: The Haiti Experience. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 16(2), 97-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.12241

Lanier, J. B., Berry, D. C., & Richardson, S. W. (2016). Diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention. American Family Physician, 93(11), 919-924. Web.

Lookens, J., Tymejczyk, O., Rouzier, V., Smith, C., Preval, F., & Joseph, I. et al. (2020). The Haiti cardiovascular disease cohort: study protocol for a population-based longitudinal cohort. BMC Public Health, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09734-x

Marseille, B., Commodore‐Mensah, Y., Davidson, P., Baker, D., D’Aoust, R., & Baptiste, D. (2021). Improving hypertension knowledge, medication adherence, and blood pressure control: A feasibility study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 30(19-20), 2960-2967. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15803

Mayo Clinic. (2022). Stroke – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 31 July 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stroke/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350119#:~:text=An%20IV%20injection%20of%20recombinant,within%20the%20first%20three%20hours.

McNairy, & Leighton, M. (2019). A Longitudinal Cohort Study to Evaluate Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease in Haiti. Case Medical Research. https://doi.org/10.31525/ct1-nct03892265

Polsinelli, V., Satchidanand, N., Singh, R., Holmes, D., & Izzo, J. (2016). Hypertension and aging in rural Haiti: results from a preliminary survey. Journal of Human Hypertension, 31(2), 138-144. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2016.52

Qin, P., Zhang, M., Han, M., Liu, D., Luo, X., & Xu, L. et al. (2021). Fried-food consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Heart, 107(19), 1567-1575. https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317883

Ruan, Y., Guo, Y., Zheng, Y., Huang, Z., Sun, S., Kowal, P., Shi, Y., & Wu, F. (2018). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors among older adults in six low-and middle-income countries: Results from SAGE Wave 1. BMC Public Health, 18(1). Web.

Stewart, J., Manmathan, G., & Wilkinson, P. (2017). Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A review of contemporary guidance and literature. JRSM Cardiovascular Disease, 6. Web.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Know your risk for heart disease. CDC. Web.

WHO. (2020). Salt reduction. Who.int. Retrieved 3 August 2022, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/salt-reduction.

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1

LITERATURE REVIEW 10

Literature Review

08/12/22

Literature Review

How to increase awareness and training to reduce the risk of stroke in the Haitian population

Introduction

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is influenced by various factors, including a person’s age, lifestyle choices, and genetics. Stroke is a common CVD that has become a problem in Haiti. However, the Haitian government has implemented some interventions but has not fully controlled the increasing disease cases and even mortalities. The Haitian population has changed their lifestyle significantly, leading to an increase in diseases and the government intervention that is in place includes medication that burdens the healthcare system (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Fried food is associated as a contributing cause to most CVD-like strokes in Haiti. Fried food intake has not been related to an elevated risk of stroke (Gillespie, 2021). There is also the aspect that men fail to see the doctor or take the medication that worsens the situation in Haiti. There is a gap in the intervention needed, and more focus needs to be considered by making moves toward preventing the disease. This paper will discuss how to address Stroke disease through preventive mechanisms. Comment by William Coyle: How does medication burden the healthcare system? Comment by William Coyle: These seem contradictory:
Fried food is associated as a contributing cause to most CVD-like strokes in Haiti.
&
Fried food intake has not been related to an elevated risk of stroke (Gillespie, 2021). Comment by William Coyle: Earlier you say that stroke is a CVD. Here you refer to CVD-like strokes. Comment by William Coyle: “There is also the aspect that men fail to see the doctor or take the medication that worsens the situation in Haiti.” If this is a statement about men in general, how does it impact Haiti in particular.

Haiti Healthcare Status and Topic Importance

The Haitian population battling CVD diseases, especially the common coronary heart disease that significantly contributes to stroke, are becoming the leading causes of death. The healthcare system is experiencing a huge burden since more costs are used in treating stroke patients, and this limits the access to other healthcare services by patients. The issue of discrimination is also a challenge where the black Haitian population fails to receive equity in healthcare compared to the majority groups. Since the population experiences the challenge of limited opportunities that limit their income, resulting in difficulty in accessing quality healthcare services. The topic is important in helping the Haiti pupation fight the lifestyle disease menace by changing the way of life and transforming healthcare from a reactive approach to proactive intervention. Comment by William Coyle: As written, this sounds as though the population is th eleading cause of death”
Maybe:
CVD diseases, especially the common coronary heart disease that significantly contributes to stroke, are becoming the leading causes of death in Haiti. Comment by William Coyle: Maybe: resources Comment by William Coyle: The majority of Haitians are black, right? Are you talking here about Haitians as a minority in the US? If you’re going to talk about stroke among Haitians in Haiti and in the US, it’s important to say that earlier, and to be clear at each point which country you mean. Comment by William Coyle: Not a complete sentence. Comment by William Coyle: Hatian

Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases

Researchers showed that fried food raises the risk of serious cardiovascular conditions like stroke. “There was a 28% greater risk of major cardiovascular events, a 22% greater risk of coronary heart disease, and a 37% greater risk of heart failure among those who ate the most fried food weekly than those who consumed the least” (Gillespie, 2021). Fried foods are a bad idea because it’s cooked in oil, fried food has a greater calorie count because of the fat it absorbs from the oil (Bowen et al., 2018). One of the risk factors for stroke and heart disease is obesity, which is related to larger caloric consumption. According to McNairy & Leighton (2019), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the primary cause of death in Haitian adults. As a result of Haiti’s poverty-related social and environmental variables, hypertension appears to be the country’s most significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Lookens et al., 2020). However, the frequency, incidence, key risk factors, and societal and environmental drivers are unknown. Longitudinal cohort studies are urgently required to identify strategies to prevent CVD and enhance health outcomes for Haitians in both Haiti and the United States (McNairy & Leighton, 2019). Comment by William Coyle: What population were they looking at? Comment by William Coyle: Here you say this: According to McNairy & Leighton (2019), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the primary cause of death in Haitian adults.
Earlier, though, you say,
The Haitian population battling CVD diseases, especially the common coronary heart disease that significantly contributes to stroke, are becoming the leading causes of death.
Comment by William Coyle: I’m not questioning that “Haiti’s poverty-related social and environmental variables” are related to hypertension, but it’s probably best to survey the health condition first.

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases (Stroke)

Cardiovascular illness can be triggered by multiple health conditions, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and excessive blood cholesterol levels. They are well-recognized as important contributors to the development of heart disease (Gudsoorkar & Tobe, 2017). Pressure in the blood can have an impact on the heart and brain’s ability to function. Cholesterol testing can help determine one’s risk for cardiovascular disease. The prevention strategies that are known to work in the fight against lifestyle diseases like stroke include diet, exercise, and medication. Comment by William Coyle: Maybe “high blood pressure”?

High salt leads to High Blood Pressure and later Stroke (if untreated)

The heart’s pumping action distributes oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. The blood flows through the vessels and presses against them. Your blood pressure measures how strongly the blood vessels are being pushed. When blood pressure is elevated, the blood vessels are subjected to an unsafe amount of force. Sodium is essential in body functions, although only in trace amounts. Sodium is essential for transmitting nerve impulses, the contraction, and relaxation of muscles, and regulating the body’s fluid and mineral levels (WHO, 2020). An excessive amount of sodium, primarily in the form of table salt. Bread, sandwiches, hotdogs, and snacks are examples of processed meals that may also have a high sodium content. The high intake of salt into the body through different sources, including table salt, results in the body holding much water in the blood, which leads to the creation of excessive pressure in the blood vessels, resulting in high blood pressure. Blood pressure is increased by consuming an excessive amount of salt. The pressure affects the blood flow in the body, including the brain. When the blood pressure is too high, the blood vessels may become too narrow and weak, increasing the chances of the barrier to blood flow. Comment by William Coyle: incomplete sentence Comment by William Coyle: Maybe: excessive ammounts of water Comment by William Coyle: Maybe: of blood flow being impeded (though I’m not a doctor)

When brain tissue does not receive enough blood flow, it cannot receive enough oxygen and nutrients, and brain cells begin to die. This is what we mean when we talk about a stroke. A high-salt diet is more strongly linked to the development of high blood pressure, especially the rise in blood pressure that occurs with aging than is obesity combined with a lack of activity. The body’s sodium balance is thrown off by a diet heavy in salt. This results in fluid retention, which pushes even harder on the blood vessel walls. Fewer fatalities will be recorded in Haiti if the people consider reducing salt intake in food significantly if the average daily salt intake is reduced by only one gram. It is projected that if people worldwide reduced their salt intake from 10 grams per day to 6 grams per day, their blood pressure would drop, and almost 2.6 million stroke and heart attack-related fatalities would be avoided annually (WHO, 2020). Reducing your salt intake is one of the quickest strategies to improve your condition for those who record high blood pressure. The prevention strategy in reducing the cases of high blood pressure and stroke among the population is through awareness and education program that helps reduce salt intake. It is essential to appreciate the fact that exercise and a balanced diet are not enough to reduce stroke but look at the intake of salt since childhood (WHO, 2020). Professionals from the healthcare setting should take up the mandate of developing learning content that should be conducted in different parts of Haiti and involve the community leaders and also schools in making sure that the information reaches out to them. Using various platforms, including social media, will help significantly reduce stroke and intake of salt that risks people’s lives. Comment by William Coyle: It can also involve a haemorrhage.

Importance of Dietary Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases

Diet and exercise are anticipated to keep people in good health, as are their weight-related issues. Stewart et al. (2017) claim that nutrition has a significant influence on the prediction of cardiovascular disease risk, but there is not much data to support clear suggestions for people to follow. The American Heart Association (AHA), for example, works to encourage a healthy diet in the United States. Using low-sugar foods, including vegetables, fruits, and grains, is inspired by the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) (Stewart et al., 2017). A high-saturated-fat, high-cholesterol diet is recommended (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Patients with cardiovascular issues are often prescribed low-sugar and low-salt diets as part of their treatment. To avoid high blood pressure and heart failure concerns, it is important to limit the consumption of salty foods linked to water retention (Bowen et al., 2018). To reduce blood pressure, sodium intake should not exceed 1500-2400 mg daily (Bowen et al., 2018). However, eliminating salt from one’s diet is never a good idea because the body benefits from salt’s existence. Considering limiting the highlighted food in the diet would help in a significant way in reducing the risks of CVD and stroke in particular. Haiti is a country that has reported high cases of cardiovascular diseases, and this is contributed highly by high salt and sugar intake that should be reduced through awareness and educational programs (Cannie et al., 2019).

Role of Exercise Training in Cardiovascular Disease Management

The Haitian population can prevent cardiovascular disease, including stroke, with improved lifestyle adjustments. Haiti’s government should consider adopting the best exercise programs that have been proven to help reduce mortality and morbidity rates and bring change in the health sector (Stewart et al., 2017). In other words, Haiti people should be compelled to engage in physical activity or enroll in physical education programs. On the other hand, it has been indicated that increased exercise improves health and reduces risk (Chauhdry, 2021). Another weekly or biweekly exercise to engage in is muscle strengthening (Stewart et al., 2017). People at high risk of heart disease should check with their therapists to see if the suggested change is safe for them.

Addressing Stroke through Education

Haiti has experienced more cases of cardiovascular diseases as compared to HIV disease, and this has been an urgent concern because more people are losing their lives. Education and awareness are an intervention that is necessary for educating the public about the importance of avoiding fried fast foods, excessive salt, and sugar and considering engaging in physical exercise (Jean‐Charles, 2014). The population needed to be educated to engage in dietary learning programs and physical lessons that prepare them to avoid cardiovascular diseases like stroke that are preventable (Hickey et al., 2018). Losing someone close due to stroke was a challenging experience as a resident of Haiti, and this shows that more focus should be directed towards preventing the disease from minimizing the burden the conditions are bringing to the healthcare system.

Medication

A recombinant TPA (also known as alteplase (Activase) and TNKase) injection by intravenous (IV) infusion is the gold standard treatment for ischemic stroke (Mayo Clinic, 2022). Within the initial 3 hours, an injectable TPA is usually administered through a vein in the arm. TPA can be administered up to 4.5 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. This medicine restores blood flow by breaking the blood clot that caused the stroke. This could help patients recover more rapidly from a stroke if the cause of the stroke is swiftly eliminated.

References

Bowen, K. J., Sullivan, V. K., Kris-Etherton, P. M., & Petersen, K. S. (2018). 

Nutrition and cardiovascular disease – An update

. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 20(2).

Brinsden, H., & Farrand, C. (2017). Reducing salt; preventing stroke. Nutrition Bulletin, 37(1), 57-63.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01947.x

Cannie, D. E., Akhtar, M. M., & Elliott, P. (2019). 

Hidden in heart failure.

 European Cardiology Review, 14(2), 89-96. Web.

CDC. (2018). Fast Food Consumption among Adults in the United States, 2013–2016. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db322.htm

.

Chauhdry, H. (2021). Understanding the importance of recognising, treating, and preventing stroke. Nursing Standard, 37(1), 77-82.

https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.2021.e11596

El Mabchour, A., Delisle, H., Vilgrain, C., Larco, P., Sodjinou, R., & Batal, M. (2022). Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from.

Gillespie, C. (2021). Fried Food Increases Risk of Stroke and Heart Disease, Analysis Finds. Verywell Fit. Retrieved 19 July 2022, from

https://www.verywellfit.com/fried-food-increases-heart-disease-stroke-risk-5097461

.

Gudsoorkar, P., & Tobe, S. (2017). Changing concepts in hypertension management. Journal of Human Hypertension, 31(12), 763-767.

https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2017.57

Hickey, A., Mellon, L., Williams, D., Shelley, E., & Conroy, R. M. (2018). 

Does stroke health promotion increase awareness of appropriate behavioural response? Impact of the face, arm, speech, and time (FAST) campaign on population knowledge of stroke risk factors, warning signs, and emergency response

. European Stroke Journal, 3(2), 117-125. Web.

Jean‐Charles, R. (2014). Challenges in Hypertension: The Haiti Experience. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 16(2), 97-98.

https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.12241

Lanier, J. B., Berry, D. C., & Richardson, S. W. (2016).

Diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention.

 American Family Physician, 93(11), 919-924. Web.

Lookens, J., Tymejczyk, O., Rouzier, V., Smith, C., Preval, F., & Joseph, I. et al. (2020). The Haiti cardiovascular disease cohort: study protocol for a population-based longitudinal cohort. BMC Public Health, 20(1).

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09734-x

Marseille, B., Commodore‐Mensah, Y., Davidson, P., Baker, D., D’Aoust, R., & Baptiste, D. (2021). Improving hypertension knowledge, medication adherence, and blood pressure control: A feasibility study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 30(19-20), 2960-2967.

https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15803

Mayo Clinic. (2022). Stroke – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 31 July 2022, from

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stroke/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350119#:~:text=An%20IV%20injection%20of%20recombinant,within%20the%20first%20three%20hours

.

McNairy, & Leighton, M. (2019). A Longitudinal Cohort Study to Evaluate Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease in Haiti. Case Medical Research.

https://doi.org/10.31525/ct1-nct03892265

Polsinelli, V., Satchidanand, N., Singh, R., Holmes, D., & Izzo, J. (2016). Hypertension and aging in rural Haiti: results from a preliminary survey. Journal of Human Hypertension, 31(2), 138-144.

https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2016.52

Qin, P., Zhang, M., Han, M., Liu, D., Luo, X., & Xu, L. et al. (2021). Fried-food consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Heart, 107(19), 1567-1575.

https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317883

Ruan, Y., Guo, Y., Zheng, Y., Huang, Z., Sun, S., Kowal, P., Shi, Y., & Wu, F. (2018). 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors among older adults in six low-and middle-income countries: Results from SAGE Wave 1.

 BMC Public Health, 18(1). Web.

Stewart, J., Manmathan, G., & Wilkinson, P. (2017). 

Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A review of contemporary guidance and literature.

 JRSM Cardiovascular Disease, 6. Web.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). 

Know your risk for heart disease.

 CDC. Web.

WHO. (2020). Salt reduction. Who.int. Retrieved 3 August 2022, from

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/salt-reduction

.

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