Knowles’s Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning

Basic Assumptions

Malcolm Knowles based his argument on six major assumptions in relation to adult learning. Such assumptions include prior experience, problem-centered, self-concept, the need to know, internal motivation, and readiness to learn. Taking my decision to embark on higher education as an example, I completely agree with the Knowles’s assumptions (Hartree, 1984). During my childhood, attending school was not optional, but rather it was a matter of mandatory. In fact, if you missed a day or two without attending classes, it raised concern in the school management. The school management would then send an inquiry about your whereabouts to your parents or guardian. Contrary, a decision to pursue a college education is based on personal decisions. It is not enforced unto us. The probability of succeeding in college education depends on an individual’s decision. Those who enroll onto a degree due to internal motivation and a self-directed decision are more likely to succeed.

Interactive models

The interactive models provide an environment for the inclusion of more hands on a given approach. The model provides an opportunity for an individual to learn a lot from failures and successes as well as trial-error strategy. However, spears model and nonlinear model are equally essential for any learning environment. In a case where different people are engaging in different individual projects and taking into consideration that they share information in regard to their different projects, the end result is that they both acquire substantial knowledge. Arguably, the interactive model involves ideological exchanges and encoding of messages as they are shared among the involved parties or individuals. However, the model lacks dynamism as far as communication is concerned. The assumption is that communication will follow a certain predetermined pattern, an aspect which may be incorrect.

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Hartree, A. (1984). Malcolm Knowles’ theory of andragogy: A critique. International journal of lifelong education3(3), 203-210.

Techniques, Tools, and Resources for the Self-Directed Learner (2019). Retrieved from

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