Running Head: RESPONSES 1

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Research design is a proposal on how to solve a problem or answer a question, and research method is the way in which it will be implemented. To begin with research design an outline consisting of the research topic, the purpose, the research question, type of study, and expected outcomes must all be formed. Your research question will determine the best type of study that should be conducted between quantitative, qualitative, or a mixed-method. The type of study will be used as if the problem is quality or quantity based. Generally, a study that is experimental based will be a quantitative study as it would be addressing a statement, and a systematic literature review would be a qualitative study since it would be descriptive. The research method is how will the information be collected and analyzed which can include observations, surveys, interviews, focus groups, experiments, secondary data analysis, and mixed methods. The type of research method used will be based off of what you are attempting to get out of the research. An example is for surveys you would be gathering information from a large pool of people and use the information to measure any differences. As well, Interviews could be used in the same context but appear as a more personalized approach that could pull more data. 

Choosing the right research method and design will take looking at the problem in a broad context and narrowing it down as you go, but using these designs and methods as you go. 


Research design versus research method: Scientific writing resource Portal. (n.d.). NMBU.

Research guides: Research methods guide: Research design & method. (2018, September 21). Research Guides at Virginia Tech.

Research Methods: What are research methods? (n.d.). LibGuides at University of Newcastle Library.


Research design refers to a plan to answer your research question (Research Methods Guide: Research Design & Method, 2018). It is the approach to the techniques and method for which the research process begins. There are several types of research design which includes descriptive, correlational, experimental, explanatory, and diagnostic. Research design helps the researchers to choose a suitable research method that they will use.

descriptive research design, a researcher is interested in giving a description of the topic that will be the subject for the research. Descriptive research is theory-based, and includes the collection of data, analysis of data, and presentation. The main characteristic of descriptive research design is that it gives the researcher a way to present a clear statement of the problem that will explain why this particular research needs to be done. The problem statement is what makes this type of research descriptive.

experimental research design, is the research design that helps the researcher to establish the relationship between cause and effect of the research matter. It involves solving a particular problem by manipulating the independent variable to observe the change on the dependent variable. It With experimental design, influence of an independent variable on a dependent variable is observed.

esearch method refers to a strategy that researchers use to implement the plan (Research Methods Guide: Research Design & Method, 2018). Research methods have two main categories, qualitative and quantitative. The research method that is chosen depends on the research design and the subject, reason, and question that needs to be answered as a result of the research.

Qualitative research methods are more subjective and describes a condition from the point of view of the person that experienced it, such as in an interview (Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 2022). It is text-based and does not include the use of statistical tests. Some of the 
qualitative research methods used are focus groups, unstructured interviews, and document review (Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 2022).

Quantitative research methods are more objective and is observed and interpreted by researchers (Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 2022). It is numerical-based and uses statistical tests for analysis. Some of the 
quantitative research methods used are surveys, structured interviews, measurements and observations, review of quantifiable or numeric information (Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 2022).


Quantitative and Qualitative Research. (2022, August 23). Retrieved from

Research Methods Guide: Research Design & Method. (2018, September 21). Retrieved from



Descriptive Statistics

ssentials of Applied Quantitative Methods for Health Services, Chapter 1: 

The Role and Function of Quantitative Methods in Health Services Management


· Doing Quantitative Research in Education, Chapter 1(consider how the methods are applicable to healthcare service research): 

Introduction to Quantitative Research


Why we need observational studies to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare


· “Utilization of maternal health-care services by tribal women in Kerala” (in 



Descriptive Statistics



                 Analytical based objectives:


· Learn to develop Anova F-test 

· Compare means of three variables using boxplot



                Reading material to improve your analytical skills:




Understanding one-way ANOVA using contextual figures

 (Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is one of the most frequently used statistical methods in medical research 


ANOVA test


ANOVA 1: Calculating SST (Total Sum of Squares)


ANOVA 2: Calculating SSW and SSB(Total Sum of Squares Within and Between)


ANOVA Test: Definitions, Types, Examples

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