heath disparities and inequalities

if You have been tasked by your upper management team to give a presentation to your peers on heath disparities and inequalities.

Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation

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You have been tasked by your upper management team to give a presentation to your peers on heath disparities and inequalities. In this assignment, you will create a PowerPoint presentation to evaluate the impact of commonly accepted business principles used to create an equitable health care system. Your presentation should include discussion on the following topics:

· definitions and examples,

· ethical differences between an inequality and an inequity,

· populations involved,

· ways to reduce or eliminate health inequalities, and

· business principles and ethical theories involved.

Your presentation must be
at least five slides in length, not counting the title and reference slides.
Each slide should have at least 100 words of speaker notes per slide in the notes section within PowerPoint (this is not on the slide).

You must use a minimum of five resources, including your textbook. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used.

HCA 3302, Critical Issues in Health Care 1

  • Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII
  • Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

    2. Defend an opinion on critical issues facing the U.S. health care system in the 21st century.
    2.1 Discuss specific health inequality and inequity examples.

    3. Evaluate the impact of commonly accepted business principles used to create an equitable health

    care system.
    3.1 Analyze the factors necessary to create a more equitable health care system.


    Learning Outcomes
    Learning Activity


  • Unit Lesson
  • Chapter 12
    Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation

    Unit Lesson
    Chapter 12
    Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation

  • Required Unit Resources
  • Chapter 12: Health Inequalities and Health Inequities

    Unit Lesson

    In this unit, we will discuss health inequalities and health inequities in the United States. Specifically, we will
    discuss what the health inequalities and health inequities in the United States are, how they are measured,
    possible ways to reduce them, and the ethical issues raised.

    Health inequalities and health inequities that exist have an overall negative impact on health outcomes. In the
    United States, health disparities exist for various reasons such as socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity,
    race, and geographical region (Morrison & Furlong, 2014). Health disparities are gaps that exist between
    different populations who are at a social disadvantage because of social health determinants. However, since
    the 1980s, there has been considerable attention to the issue of health inequalities (Murray et al., 1999).

    Health Inequalities and Health Inequities

    The term health has many definitions. One common definition is the absence of disease. More specifically,
    health involves certain indicators such as life expectancy, survival rate, morality, and disease prevalence and
    incident. Further, individual health status is often assessed in many different ways by researchers. Various
    populations have many drastically different health belief systems and definitions surrounding health (Morrison
    & Furlong, 2019).

    Health inequality is a descriptive term referring to the total variation in the status of health across a specific
    population of individuals or to a difference in health between two or more populations (Morrison & Furlong,
    2019). Health inequalities usually include a comparison of population averages and inferences are made
    about the results. Health inequalities are variances between groups of individuals and populations.

    Health inequity is a normative term that deals with differences that society judges to be morally unacceptable.
    A health inequality is not always considered a health inequity, but there is a correlation between the two. For

    Health Inequalities and
    Health Inequities

    HCA 3302, Critical Issues in Health Care 2


    example, the United States population does not consider elective plastic surgery a necessary health need;
    therefore, the population would not consider unequal access to elective plastic surgery to be an inequity
    (Morrison & Furlong, 2019). Typically, moral judgment is involved when determining if a health inequality is a
    health inequity as well. This can also be determined based off societal perception.

    Determining if a specific instance or situation is considered a health inequity requires the comparison and
    measurement of at least two populations. A population needs to be defined, and this involves important
    ethical and moral decision-making (Morrison & Furlong, 2019). It is important to choose populations that have
    distinct differences and different health inequalities. This will allow for more comparison between the
    populations chosen.

    Measurement of Health Inequalities

    There are many different statistical measures of health inequality. The topic of measurements using statistics
    is an extremely large topic, and we will just brush the surface of it with a few examples. Health inequities are
    measured by rates such as diagnostic rates (Morrison & Furlong, 2014). Health inequality is measured with
    simple statistical measurements such as the rate difference (RD) and the rate ratio (RR). The RD is a
    subtraction from the numeric measure of group A’s health status from group B (Morrison & Furlong, 2019).
    The RR is derived from dividing the numeric measure of group A’s health status from group B’s health status.
    The statistical numbers surrounding health inequalities can be used to assess health inequalities over time.
    The aggregate numbers, if improved, can simultaneously show an increase in health inequalities in a
    population (Morrison & Furlong, 2019).

    Reducing Health Inequalities

    There are several various ethical issues that play a part in determining possible interventions in hopes of
    reducing or eliminating health inequalities. Much consideration needs to be made concerning the relationship
    between equality of outcomes and equality of treatment, which are part of the principles of vertical and
    horizontal equity (Morrison & Furlong, 2019). To reduce the health disparities in the United States, social
    determinants need to be eradicated, and equal distribution of resources across all populations is needed. In
    health care, horizontal equity deals with the equal distribution of resources throughout a population. Vertical
    equity is the division of various resources for diverse need levels; however, this can be quite complicated
    because of the complex interplay of social factors. Another issue that arises when trying to reduce health
    inequalities is the relationship of leveling up and down to achieve an equity goal (Morrison & Furlong, 2019).
    Finally, there are also many social resources that play an important role in determining the best course of
    action to reduce health inequalities.

    The U.S. government, lawmakers, health practitioners, and policy makers seek to improve overall population
    health and to eliminate or reduce variations in health based on race, socioeconomic factors, geographic
    location, ethnicity, and social factors (Arcaya et al., 2015). One example is the Patient Protection and
    Affordable Care Act (ACA) that aims to reduce social determinants and move toward a more fair and
    equitable health care system.


    Health inequalities and health inequities are essential concepts for understanding some ethical problems in
    health care. Addressing health inequalities and health inequities requires a deeper awareness and
    acknowledgement of the magnitude of social issues. Despite efforts to reduce health inequalities and health
    inequities, they persist and unfortunately are even increasing in some instances. The need for changes to
    address these health inequalities and health inequities is prevalent because of the existence of health care
    gaps and the longevity between least and most advantaged populations (Morrison & Furlong, 2019).

    HCA 3302, Critical Issues in Health Care 3



    Arcaya, M. C., Arcaya, A. L., & Subramanian, S. V. (2015). Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and
    theories. Global Health Action, 8(1).

    Morrison, E. E., & Furlong, B. (Eds.). (2014). Health care ethics: Critical issues for the 21st century (3rd ed.).

    Jones & Bartlett Learning.

    Morrison, E. E., & Furlong, B. (Eds.). (2019). Health care ethics: Critical issues for the 21st century (4th ed.).

    Jones & Bartlett Learning.

    Murray, C. J. L., Gakidou, E. E., & Frenk, J. (1999). Critical reflection: Health inequalities and social group

    differences: What should we measure? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 77(7), 537–543.

      Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII

      Required Unit Resources

      Unit Lesson

      Health Inequalities and Health Inequities

      Measurement of Health Inequalities

      Reducing Health Inequalities



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