Mr. Edward, is 48 years old and smokes cigarettes. He is experiencing coughing and wheezing, shortened breath, chest pain, change in speech, loss of appetite and weight loss. The doctor has identified lumps or lesions on his chest area. The doctor has done several diagnostic tests done for example; tissue sampling or imaging studies in the lab to confirm the diagnosis (Eaton et al., 2016). The doctor has confirmed the presence of cancer cells in the lining of the air passage in his lungs. The tumour in his chest cavity is less than 5 centimetres and the cancer has spread to the main bronchus and the innermost layer of the membrane the covers the lung. Part of his right lung has inflammation and is about to collapse. Mr. Edward has stage two non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer treatment will be done through four main models which include: medical, holistic, epidemiological triangle, and social models. This is an analysis on how each of models identifies the underlying causes, symptoms, as well as personal, social, economic, and environmental factors of lung cancer.
Using the medical model after his diagnosis are confirmed, he is scheduled to undergo surgery to remove the tumour in his lungs, where the surgeon will remove the lobe, or section, of the lung containing the tumour. The surgeon will use a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). An adjuvant treatment will follow, whose main objective is to kill any remaining cancer cells to prevent recurrence. The common adjuvant therapies are chemotherapy, hormone therapy and radiotherapy. According to Eaton et al. (2016) the drugs administered for chemotherapy include; cisplatin (Platinol) or carboplatin (Paraplatin) plus docetaxel (Taxotere), gemcitabine (Gemzar), paclitaxel (Taxol and others), vinorelbine (Navelbine and others), or pemetrexed (Alimta). Palliative treatment will used to relieve pain caused by the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
The holistic treatment approach for Mr, Edward has a combination of medical, social and epidemiological treatments which is integrated with all facets of his life. This is achieved where the medical assistants personalize the treatments according to his needs, personalizing the psychological, physical, and social treatments of the patient. According to Cadet et al (2016), caring on a physical level involves; a historical assessment, diagnosis of the patient`s symptoms. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, medical treatment is administrated and also taken to counselling to help him overcome trauma, self- care, and maintains his social network both at work or at home.
The epidemiological triangle model involves identifying the host, agent, and environment, causing non-small cell lung cancer. According to Temkin (2017), the host refers to Mr. Edward, who is the patient, the agent and environment that causing lung cancer are cigarette smoking and exposure to pollution respectively. His histogram has indicated that genetics is not a factor causing lung cancer. A variety of other factors may have contributes to lung cancer include; age, anatomic structure, nutritional and immunologic status, and psychological state. In this model, the treatment is aimed at eliminating the agent and toxic environment for treatment.
Using the social model the treatment, Mr. Edward is receiving emotional, functional, and physical support from healthcare professionals, family, and friends. They provide open communication to ensure he fully understands the epidemiology of the disease, and the medical treatment options he has (Fiandaca, 2017). Mr, Edward will also be taken through counselling, to help him overcome the trauma resulting from the physiological distortion, change in skin due to surgical procedures, as well as ensuring that he maintains his social network both at work or at home. This will prepare him psychologically, improve his cancer-related coping strategies, environmental supports, interpersonal relationships, and dietary changes. With these support he will overcome fear, sorrow, and anxiety and be psychologically prepared for what he is facing; financially, physically, and emotionally (Eaton et al., 2016).
In conclusion, the aim of the various models of treatment is to achieve for their patients a better quality of life at all stages of the disease. Early diagnosis of cancer places the patient at an advantage, as it increases their chances of survival. This is because cancer cells are usually at the first stage or second stage, are easier to eliminate.
Bernad, D., Zysnarska, M., & Adamek, R. (2016). Social support for cancer-Selected problems. Reports of practical oncology and radiotherapy: journal of Greatpoland Cancer Center in Poznan and Polish Society of Radiation Oncology, 15(2), 47-50. doi:10.1016/j.rpor.2010.02.002.
Cadet, T., Davis, C., Elks, J., & Wilson, P. (2016). A Holistic Model of Care to Support Those Living with and beyond Cancer. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 4(4), 88. doi:10.3390/healthcare4040088.
Eaton, K. D., Jagels, B., & Martins, R. G. (2016). Value-Based Care in Lung Cancer. The oncologist, 21(8), 903-6.
Fiandaca, M. S., Mapstone, M., Connors, E., Jacobson, M., Monuki, E. S., Malik, S., Macciardi, F., Federoff, H. J. (2017). Systems healthcare: a holistic paradigm for tomorrow. BMC systems biology, 11(1), 142. doi:10.1186/s12918-017-0521-2.
Temkin S. M. (2017). Editorial: Cancer Care Delivery and Women’s Health: Beyond the Patient and Provider Relationship. Frontiers in oncology, 7, 213. doi:10.3389/fonc.2017.00213.
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