I need the following questions answered in 150 words each. Please provide references with each question. Reference should be within the last 5 years. Also, please no plagiarized work.
Identify a population-based problem of interest you see in your community and identify relevant outcomes you would like to see from mitigating the scope and effects of this problem. What role would public health play in addressing this social issue? How is public health essential to the health and well-being of your community, and how does public health relate to population-based nursing? Support your response with examples and relevant literature.
Describe the purpose of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the types of determinations the board makes. Provide an example of a scenario in which a quality improvement project would require IRB approval. Use relevant literature to support your response.
How can large aggregated databases be used to improve population health? Provide an example of a current disease affecting your population of interest and explain what health promotion or disease prevention evidence-based strategies you would recommend and why. Explain how related data could improve your strategies to promote health and prevent disease. Support your response with relevant literature.
Evaluate how social factors, such as personal or professional values, influence both individual and population health. How does your worldview influence the way you provide health care at both the individual and population level? Provide examples and relevant literature to support your response.
Evaluate the current political climate as it relates to health care and explain how politics influence health for both the individual and entire populations. Explain what types of positive impact the DNP can create through policy or advocacy. Provide examples and relevant literature to support your response.
Complete the “Cultural Competence Self-Assessment Checklist,” located in the topic Resources and discuss what the checklist revealed to you about you and where you see opportunities for further personal growth and application in your practice. Evaluate your personal worldview in regard to health-related values and beliefs towards the underserved populations in your community. Provide examples and relevant literature to support your response.
How is health literacy entwined with health promotion and disease prevention strategies and how do these factors relate to general population health? As a DNP-educated nurse, what is your role in improving health literacy within the health care system? Provide examples and relevant literature to support your response.
Compare prominent health concerns in developed countries with prominent health concerns in underdeveloped countries, and explain how factors such as the economy, politics, and natural resources contribute to global health disparities. What can you do as a DNP-educated nurse to help reduce these global health disparities? Provide examples and relevant literature to support your response.?
Visit the World Health Organization (WHO) website and locate an article that relates to research on the global health crisis. Include the link to the article and summarize the crisis the article discusses. Propose two realistic and achievable initiatives within the scope of nursing science that could help to mitigate this crisis. Provide examples and relevant literature to support your response.
How could you better implement descriptive epidemiological methods in your current or future practice? Provide an example of an instance when you might use descriptive epidemiology to improve care. Explain. Support your response with relevant literature.
By design, “Epidemiological Methods” can be either
analytic. Each of the two types of epidemiology uses specific kinds of studies (Frerot et al., 2018). Descriptive studies examine patterns of disease occurrence, with a focus on person, place, and time. These studies use relatively accessible data for program planning, to estimate caseloads, to determine the number of public health resources needed, or to identify high-risk groups. Epidemiologists use descriptive studies to generate hypotheses that need to be confirmed or ruled out by analytic studies (Frerot et al., 2018).
Descriptive studies describe conditions or diseases. Descriptive studies identify patterns in person, place, and time (Younger & Chen, 2016). Here are three of the most basic types: a case report, a case series, and an incidence study. A case report is a detailed description of the person, place, and time information of a specific case of disease or condition. Case reports usually are about unexpected symptoms in disease, an unexpected event while treating a patient, or unique therapeutic approaches. A case series describes the person, place, and time information about a group of cases. It can be retrospective, looking back in time, or perspective, looking forward in time, and usually involves a small number of patients, such as those who were given similar treatment. An incidence study describes the incidence, or the number of new cases of a disease or condition, during a specific time in a specific population. One advantage of incidence studies is that they allow calculation of true rates of disease occurrence for a better estimation of risk (Younger & Chen, 2016).
If I have the opportunity of implementing descriptive epidemiological methods in my current or future practice, I will prefer to implement it as case series to study method of describing individuals, place, and time information about influenza cases among elderly patients in my community living center during the flu season. The case series study of influenza outbreak helps to track patients with a known exposure, such as patients who have received an influenza vaccination and to examine their medical records for exposure and outcome. My rationale for selecting case serious methods is to evaluate influenza outbreak, it provides an aggregation of multiple similar influenza cases, and it brings to the fore hitherto unrecognized symptoms of influenza disease and plays an important role in advancing medical science (Sule et al., 2017). Research into my community has shown that in the community living center, only few patients develop flu during season, hence, case series description methods provide adequate information for preventing influenza outbreak and medical record analysis helps to rule out new symptoms and complications associated with influenza infection. The case series provides information on unexpected symptoms of flu, an unexpected event while treating the patients, unique treatment approaches, and helps to improve the patient outcome in the community living center (Gulis & Fujino, 2015).
Frérot, M., Lefebvre, A., Aho, S., Callier, P., Astruc, K., & Aho Glélé, L. S. (2018). What is epidemiology? changing definitions of epidemiology 1978-2017.
PLoS ONE, 13(12), e0208442.
Gulis, G., & Fujino, Y. (2015). Epidemiology, population health, and health impact assessment.
Journal of Epidemiology, 25(3), 179-180.
Sule, I. B., Yahaya, M., Aisha, A. A., Zainab, A. D., Ummulkhulthum, B., & Nguku, P. (2017). Descriptive epidemiology of a cholera outbreak in Kaduna state, northwest Nigeria, 2014.
The Pan African Medical Journal, 27(172), 172.
Younger, David S., MD, MPH, MSE, & Chen, X., MPH. (2016). Research methods in epidemiology.
Neurologic Clinics, 34(4), 815-835.
PROFESSOR’S COMMENTS & QUESTION
Thank you for your response. You provided a good overview of the use of case series in descriptive epidemiology. Your evidence demonstrates the importance of prevention measures such as vaccinations. In one cohort study, the researcher’s found that vaccinations can impact outcomes after splenectomy in some cases (Hernandez et al., 2019). Why can the findings of your study be applicable to the larger population?
Hernandez, M. C., Khasawneh, M., Contreras-Peraza, N., Lohse, C., Stephens, D., Kim, B. D., & Zielinski, M. D. (2019). Vaccination and splenectomy in Olmsted County.
166(4), 556–563. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.04.046
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