Using the same steps as the C-suite approach, create a mission statement to sustain your own transformational leadership for the future applying the process you did in your leadership team. Consider a personal vision statement, a communications plan to those who will help you along your transformational journey, ways to integrate innovation in your development to continue learning, and a plan to sustain this model into the future.
Self-Assessment paper is due on 8/18 (Thursday). As you write this paper, please consider the following:
Please note that six outside sources are required
Please use citations/references, double space, include an abstract, use Times New Roman 12, no contractions, and use APA section headings.
You may use the first person.
Have an introduction and a conclusion
For the first question, using textbook concepts and outside sources can be beneficial in describing your growth. You also may want to watch your video journals because they may help you recall your journey.
Your audience is anyone who will help you with your developmental journey. Some students organize this section by their different stakeholders, such as their direct reports, managers, peers, customers, support employees, vendors, etc. Your audience will likely differ depending on your current position.
One way you can organize your second question is as follows:
Mission = What do you have to do daily to be the transformation leader you want to become?
Vision = Your view of yourself as the perfect transformational leader
“Your future aspiration,” but you are not there yet.
Communication Plan = What help do you need from others to move your
towards your vision
Innovation Plan = How will you be creative with your plan
Sustainability = How you will keep this plan going as you
continue to grow
Week 7: Self-Assessment Paper
You have now completed your journey through transformational leadership and have witnessed how the model works within systems as the process looks to create value, and transform followers into leaders. Additionally, through this process you connected follower’s with the mission, inspired team members, identified weakness and strengths, and challenged others to take ownership of one’s work.
In the same fashion, you started your leadership journey, we will end. Go back and complete the strength and weakness assessment as well as the Leadership Questionnaire Click for more options Leadership Questionnaire – Alternative Formats located in the Appendix (Figure4) as you did in week 1. Once completed, write a 6-8 page paper (not including cover page, abstract, or reference page) in APA addressing what your major strength is as well as your weakness from both assessments comparing and contrasting with your week 1 results. Reflect on these assessments considering the following:
Has the results from your week 7 assessment changed from week 1? If so, what changes have taken place and why? If not, describe why you believe no change has occurred.
Using the same steps you did in your C-suite, create a mission statement to sustain your own transformational leadership for the future applying the process you did in your leadership team. Consider a personal vision statement, a communications plan to those who will help you along your transformational journey, ways to integrate innovation in your development to continue learning, and a plan to sustain this model into the future.
Be sure to utilize at least 6 academic sources to support your analysis.
Self-Assessment Paper Rubric (100 points)
Fully discusses strengths and
Discuss the results from your
week 7 assessments and
changes since week 1 10
Mission statement to sustain your
own transformational leadership
Personal vision statement 10
Communications plan 10
Integration of Innovation into plan 10
Plans to sustain plan for
Integration of outside research
–six academic sources
Presentation and Format
Professional writing skills and
organization of paper 10
APA (Citations, formatting and
The Urgent Need for Skilled Transformational Leaders: Integrating
Transformational Leadership and Organization Development
D. D. Warrick
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
There is an urgent need in organizations of all types and sizes for transformational leaders who have the
courage and skills to reinvent and build organizations capable of succeeding in today’s times of dynamic
change and scarce resources. And yet, while the idea of transformational leadership has a rich and well
researched history, few leaders are familiar with the term, few organizations are developing transform-
ational leaders, and very few leaders have any idea how to be a transformational leader. One of the
challenges with theories on transformational leadership is that while they are strong on the
characteristics needed to be a transformational leader, they are not as clear on the actual skills needed to
change and transform organizations. By integrating concepts from transformational leadership and from
the field of organization development that specializes in organization change and transformation, both
fields are strengthened. Transformational leadership is made more clear and practical and organization
development benefits from a greater emphasis on the need for transformational leaders in leading
change. The article also presents an operational definition of transformational leadership so
organizations can purposefully and systematically develop transformational leaders and interested
leaders can learn the fundamental thinking and skills needed to be a skilled transformational leader.
Organizations in both the private and public sectors are in need of revolutionary, transformational
change! Incremental change and modest improvements won’t be enough. Everything must be done
better, smarter, and faster while doing more with less and building organizations that attract and retain
talented leaders and staff. The organizations that hear this call for change and take a proactive approach to
making the changes that can and must be made have a good chance of thriving. The rest may have
difficulty surviving in a new organization world where uncertainty, constant change, increased
competition, frequent restructuring, downsizing, budget cuts, and layoffs are becoming common place
and a growing number of organizations that are household names are not able to make it.
The degree of change that is required in these times of dynamic and unpredictable economic, social,
political, technological, and organizational change can best be accomplished by transformational leaders
who have the desire, courage, and skills to make the needed changes and who understand the
fundamentals of transformational leadership. Noel Tichy said in his book, The Leadership Engine, “The
scarcest resource in the world today is leadership talent capable of continually transforming organizations
to win in tomorrow’s world” (Tichy, 1997:8). Nothing will transform an organization faster and prepare
an organization better for future success than skilled transformational leaders. Even having one skilled
transformational leader at the top could potentially increase the success of an organization. However,
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011 11
what is most needed is transformational leaders throughout an organization. Is your organization staffed
by transformational leaders? Are you developing transformational leaders? Your future may depend on
The term transformational leader was originally developed by James MacGregor Burns (Burns,
1978). Burns made a distinction between transactional leaders and transformational leaders.
Transactional leadership describes the transaction that occurs between leaders and followers in getting
the job done and achieving goals. In many ways it is another term for management. The leader makes
clear what needs to be done and offers rewards in exchange for individual and group effort directed
towards goal attainment. Transformational leadership describes a process by which leaders bring about
significant positive changes in individuals, groups, teams, and organizations (Avolia, Waldman, &
Yammarino, 1991) by using inspiration, vision, and the ability to motivate followers to transcend their
self-interests for a collective purpose. Transformational leadership focuses more on leadership skills and
takes leadership to a new level of transforming organizations and setting them on a new course of action.
Both transactional and transformational leadership are important. Organizations need to be well managed
but you can’t manage an organization to greatness. Greatness comes from leadership.
Bernard Bass was also a pioneer in developing and researching the concept of transformational
leadership (Bass, 1985). He described specific behaviors that characterized transformational leaders such
as being a model of integrity and fairness, setting clear goals, having high expectations, encouraging
people and providing support and recognition, stirring the emotions and passions of people, and getting
people to look beyond their own self-interests and reach for higher goals. Bass also identified several
dimensions of transformational leadership including (Bass, 1985, 1987, 1999, 2001, Bass & Avolio,
1. Idealized Influence (Bass originally called this charisma but later renamed it idealized influence
to describe providing a clear vision and mission, instilling pride in what needs to be
accomplished, and gaining respect and trust from leading with high moral and ethical standards)
2. Inspiration (communicating high expectations, adding meaning to goals and undertakings, using
symbols to focus efforts, expressing important purposes in simple ways, doing things to keep
3. Intellectual Stimulation (encouraging new and better ways of doing things, fostering creativity,
re-examining assumptions, promoting intelligence, rationality, and problem solving)
4. Individual Consideration (showing a personal interest in employees and their development)
In addition, Bass played a major role in researching the impact of transformational leadership. Many
empirical studies have shown that transformational leadership is positively associated with improvements
in job satisfaction, job performance, and employee commitment and trust (Bass & Avolio, 1990; Bass,
Another key player in the development of the concept of transformational leadership was Noel Tichy
who co-authored a book with Mary Anne Devanna titled The Transformational Leader (Tichy &
Devanna, 1986). Tichy and Devanna point out that the old-style manager who managed what he or she
found and left things the same will no longer work and that companies need leaders who are willing to
make revolutionary changes that will enable them to stay competitive in an increasingly international
business environment. They outline a three step process for transforming organizations:
1. Revitalization (recognizing the need for change)
2. Creating a new vision
3. Institutionalizing change
Their view of a transformational leader is of a visionary leader with new ways of thinking about
strategy, structure, and people as well as about change, innovation, and having an entrepreneurial
12 Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011
perspective. They also believe that transformational leadership is a systematic process that can be learned
There have been many other contributors to the thinking and research on transformational leadership.
Figure 1 summarizes some of the major characteristics of transformational leaders. These ideas should be
very instructive to leaders who aspire to being transformational leaders and to organizations committed to
developing transformational leaders.
PAYOFFS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
It is surprising that there isn’t a stronger interest in transformational leadership considering its many
documented payoffs. The extensive research on transformational leadership indicates that it can create a
shared vision and commitment to higher level goals and builds respect and trust between leaders and
followers. It can also improve the performance of individuals, groups, teams, and organizations and
increase innovation, creativity, and the involvement and engagement of employees in making
improvements. It is effective at empowering employees, improving employee motivation and satisfaction,
and reducing employee stress and burnout. Figure 2 summarizes some of the research on the many
potential payoffs of transformational leadership.
INTEGRATING TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION
The field of organization development (OD) had its early roots in the 1940s through the work of Kurt
Lewin and the Research Center for Group Dynamics that he founded at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in 1945 (Brown, 2011, p 8). Through the inspiration of Lewin, Kenneth Benne, Leland
Bradford, and Ronald Lippitt pursued further studies of groups and later whole organizations by
establishing the National Training Laboratory (NTL) in Bethel Maine in 1946 (Anderson, 2010, p 16).
However, it was the late 1950s and early 1960s when the term organization development started being
used and books on the subject appeared. It isn’t clear whether the term was created by Richard Beckard,
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, or Herbert Shepherd, but all were involved in the early stages of OD as a
field. Richard Beckard’s early definition of OD is still among the most popular:
“OD is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4)
increase organizational effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the
organization’s processes using behavioral science knowledge” (Beckhard, 1969).
After studying definitions of OD and soliciting new definitions from leaders in the field of OD,
Warrick (2005, p 172) concluded that:
“OD is a planned and collaborative process for understanding, developing, and changing
organizations to improve their health, effectiveness, and self-renewing capabilities.”
In reviewing the fields of transformational leadership and organization development, it seems obvious
that the two fields are interrelated and that adding an OD perspective to transformational leadership and a
transformational leadership perspective to OD strengthens both concepts. However, organization
development concepts are rarely mentioned in the transformational leader literature and transformational
leader concepts are seldom mentioned in the OD literature. The books and articles on transformational
leadership do an excellent job of describing what transformational leaders do and virtues and payoffs.
However, little is said about the skills actually required to change and transform whole organizations,
departments, and teams. Thus, a transformational leader may be skilled at being a visionary leader who
can motivate and inspire people but may at times fail to achieve the desired results for a lack of
understanding of what is involved in organization change and transformation. Tichy and Devanna in their
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011 13
1986 book titled The Transformational Leader probably comes the closest of the transformational
leadership authors to addressing organization development concepts such as managing change although
the term organization development is never mentioned in their book.
Interestingly, the multitude of books and articles on organization development provide valuable
information on how to develop, change, and transform organizations but draw little from the wealth of
research on transformational leaders and the critical role they play in building healthy, high performance
organizations and managing change and transforming organizations. From what is known about
transformational leaders, it would make sense that when transformational leaders are involved in OD
efforts, the odds of success and of accelerating the change process could be significantly increased. In
fact, a strong case could be made that developing transformational leaders should be one of the early steps
in the OD process.
AN OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THAT
INTEGRATES TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND OD CONCEPTS
By creating an operational definition of transformational leadership that integrates transformational
leadership and organization development concepts, it is possible to identify and define the skills needed to
be an effective transformational leader and to train leaders on the skills. The definition of transformational
leadership used in the model shown in Figure 3 is that transformational leaders are leaders who are skilled
at leading, championing change, and transforming organizations. The first skill, leading, relies primarily
on the transformational leadership literature while the next two skills, championing change and
transforming organizations rely primarily on the organization development literature. Figure 4 provides
an opportunity for leaders to evaluate their transformational leadership skills based on the model
presented in Figure 3. The discussion that follows will focus on the model presented in this article.
However, the greater goal is to encourage others to develop understandable and useable transform-ational
leadership models that integrate the best of transformational leadership and OD concepts and can be used
to train transformational leaders. A description of the three skills follows.
Transformational leaders first have to be skilled leaders. Few topics have received so much attention.
And yet, with so much written about leadership and so much leadership education and coaching available,
there seems to be a scarcity of good leaders and a lack of understanding of the fundamentals of leadership
in both the private and public sectors.
It is not the purpose of this article to discuss the extensive literature on leadership but rather to create
an operational definition that incorporates transformational leadership concepts that can be used in
training leaders. Leading in the model presented is defined as the process of providing vision, direction,
and inspiration (Warrick, 1995). These are skills that can be learned. When leaders lead they raise
aspirations, unite people around common goals, and inspire people to excel. However, when leaders don’t
lead, the result is a lack of focus, direction, and unity, inefficiency, underutilization of potential, political
maneuvering, a lack of confidence in leaders, and an inability to change and transform organizations.
Providing vision means giving people a clear picture of where the organization needs to go or of what
needs to be done and why. Visionary leaders are most effective when they have a passion for what can be
accomplished and are committed to elevating the performance and standards of people, groups, and
organizations. An actual vision can be shaped by the leader or by involving others and can include long
term aspirations, an important goal, or short term tasks. It can be used in vision statements or simply in
describing something that needs to be accomplished. When people understand what needs to be done and
why, they are likely to be more committed, focused, and united. If it is used as a statement such as for the
long term vision of an organization, it should be short and memorable and change the way people think
and act. Otherwise it will have little impact. Being a visionary leader may be a gift that some leaders
have. However, more often than not it comes from studying situations, being well informed enough to
14 Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011
know what is possible, having a passion for excellence and accomplishing something special, and having
the discipline to work at communicating ideas in a simple and understandable way.
Skilled leaders also provide direction on what it will take to get things done. Vision defines the target
and direction clarifies what it will take to get there. Direction typically is communicated in terms of goals
(what needs to be done), values (how things should be done), and priorities (what is most important). It
can be done formally or informally and by the leader or others empowered or designated by the leader.
The leader’s role is to make sure that the direction is as clear as possible, that there is commitment to the
direction, and that employees are empowered to accomplish what needs to be done and held accountable.
Some leaders are skilled visionary leaders but do not provide the direction needed to accomplish the
vision. Getting people invested in a worthy goal or task without providing direction on what it will take to
get there will eventually result in frustration or apathy.
The key to bringing life to vision and direction is inspiring people to excel and to persevere. Bass
originally called this charisma but later changed the term to inspiration. While being charismatic can
inspire people it is also difficult to maintain. Inspiration is not dependent on charisma. It comes from
being passionate and enthusiastic about what you are doing and trying to accomplish and from walking
the talk, being a person of integrity and honesty, being a consistent example worthy of following, and
taking a genuine interest in people and their success and development. Inspirational leaders are uplifting
to be around. They engage and involve people, listen to their ideas, and motivate and empower them to
It is important to add to this discussion on developing skills in leading the findings of Jim Collins in
his best-selling book Good to Great (Collins, 2001). Collins and his research team studied 1135
organizations and found only 11 that met their stringent criteria for going from good to great. The eleven
leaders of these organizations all had two characteristics in common. They had a strong professional will
(commitment to excellence) that was contagious and they were all known as humble leaders (modest,
open, approachable, and others oriented rather than self oriented, pompous, arrogant, and over-confident).
Professional will inspires excellence and humility creates a climate of openness that is essential to
knowing what is going on and having accurate information to base leadership decisions on.
Next to skills in leadership, skills in championing change may be the most important skills leaders
need to develop in these times of dynamic change. Unfortunately, few leaders have been trained how to
champion change. Consequently, organizational changes experience a 70% or more failure rate (Burke,
2008, Doyle, 1992, Miller, 2002, Senge, 1999). Even the right changes implemented the wrong way are
likely to fail and frequent failures at implementing change undermine confidence in leaders and the desire
to support changes.
In this article championing change will be described as skills in initiating, facilitating, and
implementing change (Warrick, 2009). Initiators of change lead and sponsor needed changes. They are
well-informed about issues, opportunities, and how to get things done. They have a change mindset,
always looking for new and better ways to do things. They are also skilled at facilitating change by
getting the right people together to explore ideas and plan changes and by guiding change related
meetings and paving the way to accomplish needed changes.
The third skill in championing change is perhaps the most important of the three skills. Implementing
change requires skills in using a sound change process to successfully design, manage, and sustain the
desired change. This is a critical skill for transformational leaders and a skill that can be learned by
training leaders to use a change model (see for example Lewin, 1951, Beckhard and Harris, 1977, Nadler
and Tushman, 1989, Warrick, 1995), a change checklist to guide leaders through the change model, and a
form for designing changes (see Warrick, 2005). Leaders may lead the implementation of change or make
sure that a person skilled in implementing change is leading the change process.
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011 15
How many leaders do you know who have been trained how to transform organizations or who
naturally possess these skills? Even though the need to transform organizations and prepare them to
succeed in today’s times is great, this critical skill is typically overlooked in training leaders. It is
interesting to consider that although the term “transformational” defines a transformational leader, there is
little guidance offered in the literature about how to actually go about transforming an organization.
The term transform means to fundamentally change something or someone from one state to another.
From an organizational perspective it means that everything, except perhaps the core values of an
organization, assuming they are known and used, is up for consideration in making the organization
stronger and better. While OD has focused from the beginning on developing healthy, high performance
organizations and successfully managing change, the emphasis on transforming organizations is a more
recent development. Interestingly, in 1994 the most popular OD readings book changed the title to
include a threefold emphasis when the title of the new edition became Organization Development and
Transformation: Managing Effective Change (French, Bell, and Zawacki, 1994). The addition of
organization transformation (OT) to the title reflects the emphasis now being placed on transforming
organizations. In the introduction to their book, French, Bell, and Zawacki said:
“Organization transformation (OT) is a recent extension of organization development
that seeks to create massive changes in an organization’s structures, processes, culture,
and orientation to its environment. Organization transformation is the application of
behavioral science theory and practice to effect large-scale, paradigm-shifting
For purposes of this article, transforming organizations is described as an on-going process of
knowing present realities, identifying future ideals, and developing and implementing a process for
transforming organizations. The term organizations is intended to include whole organizations,
departments, teams, and other forms of organizations.
It makes sense that before transforming an organization it would be important for leaders to be well
informed about present realities and be clear on the future ideals they are trying to move organizations
towards. Leaders are often out of touch with the realities of the organizations they lead, change, and
transform. This can create an illusion of doing well while the organization is regressing that results in
flawed plans that treat symptoms rather than the real issues (Warrick, 2002). Therefore, it is essential that
leaders have a keen awareness of present internal and external realities of the organizations they lead
before trying to transform them.
They also need to define and articulate future ideals that describe what the organization ideally
aspires to. To do this leaders along with others need to study future industry trends and best practices and
state-of-the-art thinking about best run organizations and what it takes to build a healthy (excellent and
motivating culture and place to work), high performance (identifiable results that exceed the norm), self-
renewing (quick to adapt to change and offers opportunities at all levels to learn grow, stay up-to-date,
and contribute) organization. If they can define and clearly communicate the ideals in simple, compelling
ways, they have a high probability of rallying people to help them accomplish the ideals.
The third skill in transforming organizations is to develop and implement a process for transforming
organizations. There are few models available on how to transform organizations. Perhaps the best and
most popular is John Kotter’s model presented in his classic book titled Leading Change (Kotter, 1996).
His model includes eight steps: (1) establishing a sense of urgency; (2) creating the guiding coalition; (3)
developing a vision and strategy; (4) communicating the change vision; (5) empowering employees for
broad based-action; (6) generating short-term wins; (7) consolidating gains and producing more change;
and (8) anchoring new approaches in the culture. He expanded on this model in a later book co-authored
with Dan Cohen titled The Heart of Change (Kotter and Cohen, 2002). In this book the authors emphasize
the importance of engaging hearts (feeling, emotions) and not just minds in committing to change. While
16 Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011
the eight step model is excellent for transforming organizations, it does not mention transformational
leadership or OD concepts.
In accomplishing transformational change in organizations, it is important to develop a sound
transformation process, train leaders on the process, appoint a transformation team to help guide the
process, and seek internal or external professional guidance in developing, executing, evaluating, and
improving the process. An example of a transformation process is shown in Figure 5.
GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING SKILLED TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
Organizations that recognize the considerable potential payoffs of having transformational leaders at
the top and hopefully throughout the organization need to have a plan for developing transformational
leaders. Even the best of leaders, with rare exception, are not likely to be skilled at transformational
leadership as this important type of leadership requires critical skills in leading, championing change, and
transforming organizations that leaders may not be aware of or possess.
Traditional training methods that provide knowledge and hope that the knowledge will be applied are
not likely to be adequate for developing transformational leaders. In designing programs for developing
transformational leaders and realizing the potential benefits the following guidelines are recommended:
1. Assure top level support and involvement: Build top level commitment to the program and
assure that top level leaders participate in the training. They can be the first to be trained or better
still join with other levels of leaders in the training.
2. Appoint a design team to plan the training and develop a transformational leadership
model to be used in the training: A design team made up of at least one top level leader and
respected leaders from different levels of the organization should be organized to work with
internal or external professionals to help design the program, develop a transformational
leadership model to be used in the training, and build commitment to the program.
3. View the program design as an intervention and not an event: Transformational leadership
training should be used as an opportunity to impact people, teams, and the organization and to
possibly transform the organization. The top level leaders and design team should explore how to
design the program for impact both during the program and following the program.
4. Make sure the program is designed to change the way people think and provide
opportunities to practice new behaviors and develop new habits: To actually change the
behavior of the participants programs need to be designed to change the way people think
(training that provides compelling and applicable knowledge and learning experiences), create
opportunities to practice skills both in the training and outside the training, and allow enough time
for the practice to become habits (new ways of behaving).
5. Plan follow-up actions to apply what has been learned: Participants should be given
assignments to apply what they are learning. It is important to keep the assignments useful and
doable so they don’t overload the participants. For example, it may be helpful to have each
participant commit to one significant personal change, one change that will improve or transform
the group they lead, and one change personally or in a group that would improve or help
transform the organization.
6. Provide coaching and help in applying the course: The probability of applying what is being
learned will increase significantly if participants have coaching or help available.
7. Evaluate and improve the process and plan future actions: It is important for the design team
to evaluate and improve the process and to plan ways to sustain the change and momentum that
has been gained, to continue the emphasis on transformational leadership, and possibly to work
with the leaders in developing a plan to transform the organization.
A well designed transformational leadership program has considerable potential to develop skilled
transformational leaders and to have a significant impact on the performance of people, teams, and
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011 17
organizations and the culture of an organization. One can well imagine the ripple effect of having each of
the participants involved in making personal changes and improving or transforming the groups they lead
and contributing to the improvement or transformation of the organization.
CONCLUSION AND CHALLENGE
In today’s times of fierce competition and dynamic, non-stop change, there is a need for
transformational leaders and for organizations to have a sense of urgency in developing transformational
leaders. The payoffs can be substantial! There is also a need to integrate transformational leadership and
organization development concepts and when this is the case both concepts are strengthened. Finally,
there is a need to develop operational definitions of transformational leadership that can be used to train
skilled transformational leaders. It is the purpose of this article to make addressing these needs a high
priority for organizations and to help them recognize the payoffs of doing so.
Anderson, Donald L. (2010). Organization Development: The Process of Leading Organizational
Change. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.
Arzu, Ilsev & Lale, Gumusluoglu (2009). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Innovation:
The Roles of Internal and External Support for Innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management,
26, (3), 264-277.
Avery, James B., Hughes, Larry W., Luthans, Kyle W., & Norman, Steven M. (2008). Using Positivity,
Transformational Leadership and Empowerment to Combat Employee Negativity.
Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 29, (2), 110-126.
Avolio, Bruce, Waldman, David, & Yammarino, Francis (1991). Leading in the 1990’s: The Four I’s of
Transformational Leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, 15, (4), 9-16.
Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., and Jung, D. L. (1999). Re-examining the Components of Transformational
and Transactional Leadership Using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational
and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441-462.
Avolio, Bruce J., Waldman, David A., & Yammarino, Francis J. (1991). Leading in the 19902: The Four
I’s of Transformational Leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, 15, (4), 9-16.
Bass, Bernard M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectation. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership: Good, Better, Best. Organizational Dynamics, 12, 26-40.
Bass, Bernard & Avolio, Bruce (1993). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture. Public
Administrative Quarterly, 7, (1), 112-121.
Bass, Bernard M., Avolio, B. J., & Goodheim, L. (1987). Biography and the Assessment of
Transformational Leadership at World Class Level. Journal of Management, 13, 7-9.
Bass, Bernard & Avolio, Bruce (1991). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to
Share the Vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18, 3, 19-31.
18 Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011
Bass, Bernard M. (1999). Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership.
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8, (1), 9-32.
Bass, Bernard M. & Avolio, Bruce J. (2001). Developing Transformational Leadership: 1992 and
Beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14, (5), 21-27.
Beckhard, R. (1969). Organization Development: Strategies and Models. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Beckhard, Richard & Harris, R. (1977). Organization Transitions: Managing Complex Change. Reading,
Brown, Donald R. (2011). An Experiential Approach to Organization Development (8th ed.). Saddle
River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Burke, W.W. (2008). Organization Change: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Chakrabarti, A.K. (1974). The Role of Champion in Product Innovation. California Management Review,
17, (2), 58-62.
Bycio, P.H., Hackett, R.D., & Allen, J.S. (1995). Further Assessments of Bass’ (1985) Conceptualization
of Transactional and Transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, (4), 468-478.
Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great. New York: Harper Business.
Daft, Richard L. (2005). The Leadership Experience (3rd ed.). Mason, Ohio: South-Western.
Dionne, Shelley D., Yammarino, Francis J., Atwater, Leanne E., & Spangler, William D. (2004).
Transformational Leadership and Team Performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management,
17, (2), 177-193.
Doyle, K. (1992). Who’s Killing Total Quality? Incentive, 166, (8), 12-19.
Fitzgerald, Susan, & Schutte, Nicola S. (2010). Increasing Transformational Leadership Through
Enhancing Self-Efficacy. Journal of Management Development, 29, (5), 495-505.
French, Wendell, Bell, Cecil H. Jr., Zawacki, Robert A. (1994). Organization Development and
Transformation: Managing Effective Change. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Friedman, Hershey, Langbert, Mitchell, and Giladi, Kreindy (2000). Transformational Leadership.
National Public Accountant, 45, (3), 8-11.
Gill, Amarjit S., Flaschner, Alan, B., & Shachar, Mickey (2006). Mitigating Stress and Burnout by
Implementing Transformational Leadership. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality
Management, 18, (6), 469-481.
Humphreys, John H. & Einstein, Walter O. (2003). Nothing New Under the Sun: Transformational
Leadership from a Historical Perspective. Management Decision, 41 (1), 85-95.
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011 19
Kanungo, Rabindra (2001). Ethical Values of Transactional and Transformational Leaders. Canadian
Journal of Administrative Sciences, 18, (4), 257-265.
Kelloway, E. Kevin, Barling, Julian, Kelley, Elizabeth, Comtois, Julie, & Gatien, Bernadette (2001).
Remote Transformational Leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24, (3), 163-
Kotter, John P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Kotter, John P. (2002). The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Lewin, Kurt (1951). Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper and Row.
Michaelis, Bjorn, Stegmaier, Ralf, & Sonntag, Karlheinz (2010). Shedding Light on Followers’
Innovation Implementation Behavior: The Role of Transformational Leadership, Commitment to Change,
and Climate for Initiative. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25, (4), 408-429.
McShane, Steven L. & Mon Glinow, Mary Ann (2010). Organizational Behavior: Emergin Knowledge
and Practice for the Real World (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Miller, D. (2002). Successful Change Leaders: What Makes Them? What do they do that is Different?
Journal of Change Management, 2, (4), 359-368.
Nadler, David & Tushman, Michael (1989). Organizational Framebending: Principles for Managing
Reorientation. Academy of Management Executive, 3, 194-202.
Nielsen, K., Yarker, J., Brenner, S.O., Randall, R., & Borg, V. (2008). The Importance of
Transformational Leadership Style for the Well-Being of Employees Working With Older People.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63, (5), 465-475.
Nurdan, Ozaralli (2003). Effects of Transformational Leadership on Empowerment and Team
Effectiveness. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 24, (6), 335-344.
Pawer, Badrinarayan Shankar & Eastman, Kenneth (1997). The Nature and Implications of Contextual
Influences on Transformational Leadership: A Conceptual Examination. Academy of Management
Review, 22, (1), 80-109.
Polychroniou, Panagiotis V. (2009). Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational
Leadership of Supervisors: The Impact on Team Effectiveness. Team Performance Management, 15,
Sashkin, Marshall & Sashkin, Molly (2003). Leading the Way: What Makes a Good Leader? Security
Management, 47, (11), 24-25.
Simosi, Maria & Xenikou, Athena (2006). Organizational Culture and Transformational Leadership as
Predictors of Business Unit Performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (6), 566-579.
Tichy, Noel M. and Devanna, Mary Anne (1986). The Transformational Leader. New York: John Wiley
Tichy, Noel M. with Eli Cohen (1997). The Leadership Engine. New York: Harper Business, 8.
20 Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011
Wang, Peng & Ahu, Wichun (2011). Mediating Role of Creative Identity in the Influence of
Transformational Leadership on Creativity: Is There a Multilevel Effect? Journal of Leadership &
Organizational Studies, 18, (1), 25-39.
Warrick, D.D. (1995). Best Practices Occur When Leaders Lead, Champion Change, and Adopt a Sound
Change Process. Organization Development Journal,13, (4), 91-100.
Warrick, D.D. (2002). The Illusion of Doing Well While the Organization is Regressing. Organization
Development Journal, 20, (1), 56-60.
Warrick, D.D. (2005). Organization Development from the View of the Experts. In William J. Rothwell,
Roland Sullivan, and Gary McLean (Eds). Practicing Organization Development: A Guide for
Consultants. San Francisco: Josey-Bass/Pfeiffer, pp. 164-187.
Warrick, D.D. (2009). Developing Organization Change Champions: A High Payoff Investment! OD
Practitioner, 41, (1), 14-19.
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011 21
1. Visionary leader committed to transforming people, groups, and
organizations: The leader envisions and communicates a desirable
and is committed to elevating and transforming the performance and
d d f l d i i
Bass (1985), Bass (1999), Burns (1978,
p. 20), Friedman, Langbert & Giladi
(2000), Tichy & Devanna (1986), p.4
2. Communicate clear goals and values that elevate performance:
Mobilize people to embrace and accomplish worthy goals by
people in the process, making goals meaningful and articulating how
can be reached, leading by example and emphasizing important
Bass (1985), Burns (1978, p. 20), Tichy
& Devanna (1986)
3. Inspire excellence and raise aspirations: Inspire people to excel
to sacrifice individual interests for a higher purpose, makes
meaningful and simple to understand and encourages positive
Bass (1985), Bass & Avolio (1991),
Bass, Avolio, & Goodheim (1987),
Tichy & Devanna (1986), p. 187
4. Strong ethical and moral standards: Lead with high ethical and
standards and is honest and straightforward with people which sets
Bass (1985), Bass & Steidlmeier (1999),
Burns (1978), Friedman (2000),
5. Genuinely care about people and their development: Show a
interest in people and their development and positively influences the
values, attitudes, and behavior of people
Bass (1985), Bass (1999), Sashkin and
6. Empower and motivate people and teams to excel: Make clear
needs to be done and empower and motivate people and teams to
Bass (1985), Bass (1999)
7. Encourage innovative thinking and new ways of seeing things:
Encourage people and teams to find new and better ways to do things
to look at things in innovative ways from a different perspective
Bass (1985), Bass (1999)
8. Build a culture of excellence: Study the present culture and change
improve the culture by realigning the culture with a new vision and
changing cultural assumptions, values, and norms.
Bass (1985), Bass & Avolio (1993),
Tichy & Devanna (1986), p. 109-110
9. Excel at emotional intelligence skills. Skilled in working with
(self-aware, skilled in self-management, social awareness, and
Fitzgerald & Schutte (2010),
Polychroniou and Panagiotis (2009),
Simosi & Xenikou (2006)
10. Involve and engage people at all levels: Involve and engage people
and strive for an alignment of individual and organizational interests. Pawar & Eastman (1997)
CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
22 Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011
1. Increased individual performance, motivation, satisfaction,
loyalty, commitment, innovation, and empowerment.
Avey, Hughes, Luthans, & Norman
(2008), Bass (1999), Michaelis,
Stegmaier, & Sonntag (2010),
Humphreys & Einstein (2003),
Kanungo (2001), Kelloway, Barling,
Kelley, Comtois, & Gatien (2003),
McShane & Von Glinow, (2010 p. 374),
N d (2003)
2. Increased team performance, commitment, innovation, and
Bass (1999), Blascovich & Hoyt (2003),
Dionne, Yammarino, Atwater, &
Spangler ((2004), Deanne, Kelloway,
Barling, Kelley, Comtois, & Gatien
3. Increased organization performance, outcomes, innovation, and
creativity, and improvements in culture.
Arzu & Lale (2009), Bass (1999),
Humphreys & Einstein (2003),
Michaelis, Stegmaier, & Sonntag
(2010), Simosi & Zenikou (2006),
Wang & Zhu (2011)
4. Positively correlated with improved employee attitudes and
Avolio, Bass, & Jung (1999), Bass,
Avolio, & Goodheim (1987), Bycio,
Hackett, & Allen (1995), Nielsen,
Yarker, Brenner, Randall, & Borg
5. Elevates the desires and aspirations of individuals and groups. Bass & Avolio (1991), Burns (1978)
6. Significant positive changes in individual and organization
Avolia, Waldman, & Yanmarind
(1991), Daft (2005, p. 153),
7. Unites diverse members in the pursuit of higher goals. Pawar and Eastman (1997)
8. Shapes and reinforces a new culture. Tichy and Devanna (1986), 109-110
9. Builds trust among leaders and employees. Bass (1999), Sashkin & Sashkin (2003)
10. Decreased employee stress and burnout. Gill, Flaschner, & Shachar (2006)
PAYOFFS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011 23
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS are leaders who are skilled at
Leading, Championing Change, and Transforming Organizations.
Leading is the process of providing:
Vision. A clear and compelling picture of what needs to be done and why.
Direction. Clear goals, values, and priorities.
Inspiration. Leading by example and motivating people to excel, meet the challenge, and persevere.
Championing Change is the process of:
Initiating Change. Skills in leading or sponsoring needed change.
Facilitating Change. Skills in guiding or paving the way for change.
Implementing Change. Skills in designing, managing, and sustaining changes.
Transforming Organizations is the process of:
Knowing Present Realities. Skills in being keenly aware of internal and external realities. If you know reality
you can almost always do something about it.
Identifying Future Ideals. Skills in being aware of best practices and clearly defining and communicating future
ideals. If you know and can define what is possible you can probably build it.
Developing And Implementing A Process For Transforming Organizations. Skills in developing a
transformation process and knowing how to build a healthy, high performance, self-renewing organization.
24 Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011
In these times of dynamic change and the need to do everything smarter, faster, and better, Transformational Leaders who are
skilled at leading, championing change, and transforming organizations will be in high demand. Unfortunately, few leaders have
been trained in Transformational Leadership Skills. This questionnaire is designed to help you evaluate where you are strong and
weak in Transformational Leadership Skills so you will know what you need to do to become a skilled Transformational Leader.
Use the following scale to rate yourself on the Transformational Leadership Skills described below. Then complete the
information for interpreting and evaluating your scores.
Low Rating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 High Rating
_____ 1. Vision. Skills in providing a clear and compelling picture of what needs to be done and why.
_____ 2. Direction. Skills in providing clear goals, values, and priorities.
_____ 3. Inspiration. Skills in leading by example and motivating people to excel, meet the challenge, and persevere.
_____ 4. Initiating Change. Skills in leading or sponsoring needed change.
_____ 5. Facilitating Change. Skills in guiding or paving the way for change.
_____ 6. Implementing Change. Skills in designing, managing, and sustaining changes.
_____ 7. Knowing Present Realities. Skills in being keenly aware of internal and external realities.
_____ 8. Identifying Future Ideals. Skills in being aware of best practices and clearly communicating future ideals.
_____ 9. Developing And Implementing A Process For Transforming Organizations. Skills in developing a transformation
process and knowing how to build a healthy, high performance, self-renewing organization.
Interpreting And Evaluating Your Results
Overall Transformational Leadership Skills Score
Underdeveloped Below Average Average Good Excellent
9-18 19-28 29-43 44-53 54-63
_____ Total Leading Points
_____ Total Championing Change
_____ Total Transforming
_____ TOTAL OVERALL POINTS
STRENGTHS OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE
Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011 25
1. Develop a keen sense of present realities inside and outside the organizations.
2. Explore best practices and define the ideal.
3. Create a design team to help design and implement the transformation process.
4. Develop a compelling vision and a clear and simple transformation strategy.
5. Frequently communicate the vision and strategy.
6. Train and empower leaders to be skilled transformational leaders and to champion needed
7. Involve the appropriate people throughout the organization in making changes and
assure the change process is effectively managed.
8. Create, communicate, and recognize early wins.
9. Align everything to support the desired changes.
10. Build in reliable feedback mechanisms to monitor progress, make needed adjustments,
sustain the changes, and learn from the process..
26 Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics vol. 8(5) 2011
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more
Our specialists are always online to help you! We are available 24/7 via live chat, WhatsApp, and phone to answer questions, correct mistakes, or just address your academic fears.See our T&Cs