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at least two of your colleagues on 
two different days in one of the following ways:

· If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained.

· If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.


s at least 2-3 no more than 5 years ago.

do not make negative critique

he actions of Psychopharmacologic agents consist of agonists-to- antagonists spectrums. The agonist to antagonist spectrums of the activities comprises the agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists. Moreover, the activities include partial inverse agonists and inverse agonists. The main difference between agonist and antagonist is that agonist simulates the intended reaction, whereas an antagonist binds to the receptor, and stops/ slows responses (Nguyen, 2018). Agonists refer to the transmitters that occur naturally and facilitate the stimulation of receptors. Here, some notable drugs can work as neurotransmitters enabling stimulation of receptors fueling the creation of response. On the other end, antagonists are drugs, which block the action of a neurotransmitter at the receptor, and they lack specific action in case the agonist is absent. Furthermore, antagonists can block anything in the agonist spectrum, including the inverse agonists. Inverse agonists are the medications that act in the opposite mechanism of the agonists and binds agonist in the receptor. Conversely, partial agonists focus on activating the receptors. However, they are not able to create a maximum response from the receptor. They include tramadol, which is an agonist of the mu receptor. Also, partial agonists are called agonist-antagonist drugs because they may time block the agonists’ effects.

            G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that are used by cells to convert extracellular signals into intracellular responses, including responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, as well as responses to vision, olfaction, and taste signals (Zhao et al., 2016). Here, the two broad family receptor proteins mainly perform their functions on the opening and closing postsynaptic ion channels. Additionally, the receptor in one of the families is called the ionotropic receptor directly linked with the ion channels. The G couple proteins and ion gated channel receptors have two functional domains: extracellular and membrane-spanning domains. Ion channel receptors also interact with other ion channels (Li et al., 2014). The extracellular site binds the neurotransmitters while the membrane-spanning domain forms an ion channel. Thus, the inotropic receptors combine transmitter binding and channel function to a single molecular entity, ligand-gated ion channels. Another family of neurotransmitters is the metabotropic receptors, where the movement of the ion depends on one or more metabolic steps. Here, there are no ion channels, but activation of intermediate molecules called G-proteins affects the channels. The metabotropic receptors are also referred to as G-protein-coupled receptors. The G-protein-linked receptors bind the ligand and ensure the activation of a membrane protein that interacts with either an ion channel or an enzyme in the membrane.

 To explain the role of epigenetics, it is important to be aware of what the epigenetic means and how their roles can contribute to pharmacologic actions. Epigenetics is the study of the behaviors and environment of an individual that may contribute to changes, which alter the way genes act (Stefanska & MacEwan, 2015). It is easy to note the connection between people’s genes, behaviors, and environment. Epigenetic regulation of genes is crucial as they maintain the normal phenotypic activity of cells. Furthermore, they play an essential role in the development and diseases like cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, according to Stefanska & MacEwan, 2015, epigenetic regulatory mechanisms such as non-coding RNA regulation, DNA methylation, and histone modification are associated with depression and DNA interacts with the proteins, packed into chromatins. These histone proteins undergo epigenetic change such as acetylation, phosphorylation, and methylation that would activate the gene transcriptions. Besides, epigenetic modifications have laid the foundation in understanding the pathophysiology of different disease conditions.


            As a medical provider, it is crucial to look at the patient. In addition, it is essential to pay attention to the patients and their specific body and disease processes. Providing a patient with the proper medication at the beginning brings numerous benefits and improves their lives. Therefore, the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner needs to know which medication to prescribe to a patient, for instance, when prescribing benzodiazepine. (Angell & Bolden, 2015). The purpose of prescribing benzodiazepine is to treat anxiety and panic disorders but extended daily treatment may cause rapid tolerance onset. During this period, the patient may form a tolerance to the highest dose of benzodiazepine, contributing to various side effects. Thus, the patient would have to avoid taking medications that may lead to debilitating withdrawal symptoms and early-onset dementia in the future. Extra care should be considered when prescribing benzodiazepine to pregnant women, children, and the elderly due to their age and vulnerable states (Alshammari, 2016).


Alshammari, T. M. (2016). Drug safety: The concept, inception and its importance in patients’ health. 
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 24(4), 405–412. 

Angell, B., & Bolden, G. B. (2015). Justifying medication decisions in mental health care: Psychiatrists’ accounts for treatment recommendations
. Social science & medicine (1982), 138, 44–56.

Li, S., Wong, A. H., & Liu, F. (2014). Ligand-gated ion channel interacting proteins and their role in neuroprotection. 
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 8, 125. 

Nguyen, A. (2018). Agonists and Antagonists. Agonists and Antagonists – UTS Pharmacology 

Stefanska, B., & MacEwan, D. J. (2015). Epigenetics and pharmacology. 
British Journal of Pharmacology, 172(11), 2701–2704.

 Zhao, J., Deng, Y., Jiang, Z., & Qing, H. (2016). G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Focus on BACE1 Related GPCRs.  
Frontiers in Ageing Neuroscience, 8.

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